Fifty-one SNPs within the 2.4 Mb region with high percentages of heterozygosity (> 0.45) were chosen for analysis (HapMap) . Primers for each
SNP were designed for analysis on the MassARRAY system (Sequenom; see Additional file 3). All primers were synthesized by IDT. The genotyping reactions were performed with 5 ng genomic DNA Talazoparib concentration from each sample. Immunohistochemical analysis of patient samples Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded renal tissue samples analyzed for LOH were sectioned and processed for immunohistochemistry as previously described . Tissues were stained with anti-β-catenin antibody (BD Transduction Laboratories) or SOSTDC1-specific rabbit antiserum . Primary antibody treatments were followed by incubation with ImmPRESS VS-4718 molecular weight anti-mouse/rabbit or anti-rabbit IgG peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibodies (Vector Laboratories) and development with 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB; Vector Laboratories).
Stained sections were imaged using a Zeiss Axioplan2 confocal microscope (Carl Zeiss, Inc.). Antibody characterization Antibody specificity was verified in four ways (see Additional file 4). First, we verified that immunohistochemical staining of tissues was not observed in the absence of SOSTDC1 antiserum. Second, we confirmed that the antiserum detected recombinant SOSTDC1 protein. Known quantities of glutathione S-transferase (GST)-tagged SOSTDC1 protein (Novus learn more Biologicals) were gel-resolved, transferred to nitrocellulose, and immunoblotted with SOSTDC1-specific antiserum as described previously . Third, antibody specificity was confirmed by peptide competition. Cells were lysed in Triton X-100 lysis buffer [50 mM Tris pH 7.5, 150
mM sodium Phosphoglycerate kinase chloride, 0.5% Triton X-100 (Sigma)] containing Complete protease and phosSTOP phosphatase inhibitor cocktail tablets (Roche Diagnostics). After protein electrophoresis, transfer, and blocking, duplicate membranes were immunoblotted with SOSTDC1-specific antiserum in the presence or absence of the immunizing peptide (Ac-CVQHHRERKRASKSSKHSMS-OH; Biosource) at a concentration of 1 μg/mL. Protein detection then proceeded as described previously . Equal protein loading was verified by immunoblotting with anti-glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) antibody (Fitzgerald). Fourth, we confirmed that FLAG-tagged SOSTDC1 that had been immunoprecipitated by anti-FLAG antibody (M2; Sigma-Aldrich) was detected by our antibody. Results SOSTDC1 expression levels in renal carcinoma We had previously observed that SOSTDC1 expression is decreased in adult renal carcinomas . To assess whether expression levels of SOSTDC1 were similarly decreased in pediatric kidney cancer patients, we queried the Oncomine database .