“To assess the impact of prebiotic supplementation during gestation and fetal and early neonatal life, gestating BALB/cj dam mice were fed either a control or a prebiotic (galacto-oligosaccharides-inulin, 9:1 ratio)-enriched diet throughout pregnancy and lactation, and allowed to nurse their pups until weaning. At the time of weaning, male offspring mice were separated from their mothers, weaned to the same solid diet as their dam and their growth was monitored until killed 48 d after weaning. Prebiotic click here treatment affected neither the body-weight gain
nor the food intake of pregnant mice. In contrast, at the time of weaning, pups that had been nursed by prebiotic-fed dams had a higher body weight (11.0 (SE 1.2) g) than pups born from control dams (9.8 (SE 0.9) g). At 48 d after weaning, significantly higher values were observed for colon length and muscle mass in the offspring of prebiotic-fed dams (1.2 (SE 0.1) cm/cm and 5.7 (SE 1.8) mg/g, respectively), compared with Selleckchem DZNeP control offspring (1.1 (SE 0.1) cm/cm and 2.9 (SE 0.9) mg/g, respectively), without any difference in spleen and stomach weight, or serum leptin concentration. The present preliminary study suggests that altering the fibre content of the maternal diet during both pregnancy
and lactation enhances offspring growth, through an effect on intestinal and muscle mass rather than fat mass accretion.”
“Some Bantu languages spoken in southwestern Zambia and neighboring regions of Botswana, Namibia, and Angola are characterized by the presence of click consonants, whereas their closest linguistic relatives lack such clicks. As clicks are a typical feature not of the Bantu language family, but of Khoisan languages, it is highly probable that the Bantu languages in question borrowed the clicks from Khoisan languages. In this paper, we combine complete mitochondrial genome sequences from a representative sample of populations from the Western Province of Zambia speaking Bantu languages with and without
clicks, with fine-scaled analyses of Y-chromosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms and short tandem repeats to investigate the prehistoric RG-7112 in vivo contact that led to this borrowing of click consonants. Our results reveal complex population-specific histories, with female-biased admixture from Khoisan-speaking groups associated with the incorporation of click sounds in one Bantu-speaking population, while concomitant levels of potential Khoisan admixture did not result in sound change in another. Furthermore, the lack of sequence sharing between the Bantu-speaking groups from southwestern Zambia investigated here and extant Khoisan populations provides an indication that there must have been genetic substructure in the Khoisan-speaking indigenous groups of southern Africa that did not survive until the present or has been substantially reduced.