Approximately 4% and 6% of the respective human NPFs had high ALDH activity (Supporting Fig. 9B). As in mouse, bile ducts and canals of Hering were found to be positive for ALDH1A1 in healthy human tissue (Supporting Fig. 9C). The ALDH+ fraction was enriched for Krt7+, Krt19+, EpCAM+, and CD133+ cells (Fig. 8A), albeit less than in healthy mouse livers (Fig. 2). Together, these data indicate that the ALDH activity assay can also be used to enrich for human LPCs. To illustrate the hepatic differentiation capacities of the sorted human ALDH+ cells, we had to use another
in vitro differentiation protocol based on the use of Biomatrix scaffolds and hormonally defined medium (Fig. 8B,C).18 In stage I, the ALDH+ cells transitioned to cells with an increased cytoplasmic/nuclear
ratio and formed colonies with marked ALB and Krt18 expression and glycogen storage. These colonies also displayed channels reminiscent Kinase Inhibitor Library supplier of bile canaliculi (Fig. 8D-F). Although the colonies were relatively homogeneous and densely packed, we noticed the presence of two different phenotypes: hepatoblast-like and hepatocyte-like cells (Fig. 8D,F). Finally, the differentiated human ALDH+ cultures exhibited ALB and urea secretion, illustrating a successful differentiation of human ALDH+ cells into hepatocyte-like cells (Fig. 8G,H). LPCs exist only in low numbers in healthy livers, which forces selleck products most scientists to use “two-hit liver injury models” in order to increase their overall yield (see references in Dollé et al.20 and Gaudio et al.23). The use of different
liver injury models, however, has not facilitated the comparison of LPCs isolated Tau-protein kinase from these models using diverse antibodies directed against LPC markers such as EpCAM, CD133, and Sca-1.9, 10, 24 Here we report, for the first time, the use of high ALDH activity for the enrichment of functional LPCs. This assay is highly reproducible, nontoxic, and easy to use, does not involve antibody recognition or the use of DNA intercalating dyes, and is also applicable to human material. ALDH1A1-positive cells can be located in the well-described LPC niches,22 the canal of Hering and its vicinity. Additionally, the expression level of ALDH1A1 is induced during various forms of liver injury. Although in healthy mice the ALDH+ population only accounts for ±2.24% of the NPF, the use of healthy livers ensures the isolation of resident LPCs and not additional progeny of LPCs induced by the injury. This is illustrated by the lack of expression of Sca-1, CD34, Dlk-1, Foxl1, and Trop2, all markers expressed in progenitor cells on liver injury.7, 9, 25, 26 When we compared the surface marker expression of the NP ALDH+ cells with other LPC populations described in the literature (Supporting Table 3), we found three populations that were closely related to ALDH+ cells because of their positivity for EpCAM, CD13/CD49f/CD133, and CD24 on freshly isolated material.