Materials and Methods: In-house seasonal and pandemic influenza-s

Materials and Methods: In-house seasonal and pandemic influenza-specific

polymerase chain reaction assays were introduced and/or developed at the Molecular Diagnosis Centre (MDC) at the National University Hospital (NUH), Singapore. These assays have been used to test all samples received from in-patients, out-patients, staff and visitors for suspected pandemic influenza A/H1N1/2009 infection. Results: Prior to the arrival of the pandemic A/H1N1/2009 virus in Singapore at the end of May 2009, seasonal influenza A/H3N2 predominated in this population, with very little seasonal influenza A/H1N1 and B viruses detected. Within about 1 month of its arrival in Singapore (mainly during June to July 2009), this Pinometostat molecular weight pandemic virus rapidly displaced seasonal influenza A/H3N2 to become the predominant strain in the Singaporean population served by MDC/NUH. Conclusions: Real-time molecular techniques have allowed the prompt

detection of different influenza subtypes during this current pandemic, which has revealed the displacement/replacement of previously circulating seasonal subtypes with A/H1N1/2009. Although some of this may be explained by immunological cross-reactivity between influenza subtypes, more studies are required. Ann Acad Med Singapore 2010;39:291-4″
“Chordoma is a neoplasm of notochordal differentiation that typically occurs in the axial skeleton. Accurate diagnosis is therapeutically Vorinostat order important but can be challenging, especially in fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy (CNB). Immunohistochemistry for the transcription factor brachyury (T) has recently proven diagnostically useful in whole-tissue sections. Duvelisib Our aim was to compare brachyury performance with conventional markers (S-100, EMA, keratin) and to evaluate its utility in distinguishing chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics. Brachyury

immunohistochemistry was performed on chordoma (8 FNA, 12 CNB), chondrosarcoma (10 FNA), and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma (12 FNA). Immunohistochemistry performed at the time of diagnosis was also reviewed. Brachyury was positive in 17 (85%) cases of chordoma and typically showed moderate-to-strong nuclear staining. Of five sets of concurrent FNA and CNB, four pairs were positive for brachyury in both samples and one pair was positive for brachyury in the CNB and negative in the cell block. S-100, EMA, and keratin stains were available for 13 chordomas: 9 (69%) cases (including the 3 negative for brachyury) were positive for S-100 and keratin or EMA; 4 cases were keratin positive but S-100 negative. No nuclear brachyury staining was seen in chondrosarcoma or adenocarcinoma, though two adenocarcinomas showed cytoplasmic staining. Brachyury separates chordoma from cytomorphologic mimics with high sensitivity and specificity in small biopsies. As a single test, brachyury has higher sensitivity than a combined panel of S-100 and epithelial markers.

Results The mean value of pain intensity (VAS) in the IVIG group

Results. The mean value of pain intensity (VAS) in the IVIG group dropped from 88 at baseline to 49

after the first week, and to 28 after 4 weeks, while values in the control group only slightly changed, from 85 to 78 after 1 week and to 75 after 4 weeks (P < 0.01). Almost 100% of patients reported strong/medium pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire) in both groups at baseline, while after 48 weeks, pain was reduced to moderate/light in 90% of patients in the IVIG group, whereas no improvement was reported in the control group (P < 0.01). In patients’ TH-302 mouse quality of life, scores of the IVIG group (Short Form 36, Clinical Global Impression of Change, and Patient Global Impression of Change questionnaires) in all the follow-up were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion. This unblinded pilot study showed a beneficial effect of IVIG on neuropathic pain intensity and quality of life in patients resistant to conventional treatments.”
“The present study was aimed to reveal the effect on keeping quality of boar semen on holding or not holding at an elevated temperature than that used for preservation when combined with washing or not

washing of seminal plasma. Twenty ejaculates, four from each of five Hampshire boars were used to hold for 0 and 4 h in GEPS extender at 22 degrees C and subsequently washed (1500 x g for 10 min) of seminal plasma or left unwashed and preserved at 15 degrees C for 72 h after extending with the same extender. The seminal parameters in terms of sperm motility, live spermatozoa, 3-deazaneplanocin A nmr and live spermatozoa GDC-0994 purchase with intact acrosome (LIA) were evaluated at 0 h-(immediately after extension) and thereafter at 24 h intervals. The mean percentage of sperm motility was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both Oh and 4 h of holding irrespective of preservation period. It was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) higher in semen held

for 4 h than Oh irrespective of washing and significantly (P smaller than 0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. Irrespective of preservation period the mean percentage of live spermatozoa was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) higher with 4 h than Oh of holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) higher in unwashed than washed semen at both Oh and 4 h of holding. It was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) higher for 4 h held semen irrespective of washing and was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) lower in washed than in unwashed semen irrespective of holding during preservation. The mean percentage of LIA was significantly (P smaller than 0.01) higher with 4 h than with Oh holding in both unwashed and washed semen and was significantly (P smaller than 0.

The control patients underwent the same protocol without Mg In C

The control patients underwent the same protocol without Mg. In Clinical Trial II, the study population consisted of 50 patients, where 25 patients received NAC just before the release of the aortic cross clamp. In the NAC untreated group, dextrose solution was administered at the

same Selisistat concentration time as the placebo. Six blood samples were taken at different times during the cardiac surgery and the antioxidant enzymes, ATPase and cardiac markers from the coronary sinus blood samples were analysed.\n\nResults: Increased blood lipid peroxidation was observed in patients who were not treated with Mg/NAC. The administration of Mg/NAC just before the release of the aortic cross clamp reduced the lipid peroxidation significantly Screening Library (p-value is less than 0.05). The above observations were supported by the antioxidant enzyme levels. Significant improvements to the erythrocyte ATPase and cardiac markers in patients treated with Mg/NAC correlated with a reduction in postoperative abnormalities. Based on the biochemical status of the patients,

Mg was shown to mediate better recovery from postoperative changes.\n\nConclusion: NAC and Mg decreased pump-induced oxidative stress during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), suggesting that it could be a novel therapy for assisting in the prevention of CPB-induced oxidative stress.”
“To locate the acquired antibiotic resistance genes, including the amikacin resistance transposon TnaphA6, in the genome of an Australian isolate belonging to Acinetobacter baumannii global clone 1

(GC1). A multiply antibiotic-resistant GC1 isolate harbouring TnaphA6 was sequenced using Illumina HiSeq, and reads were used to generate a de novo assembly and determine multilocus sequence types (STs). PCR was used to assemble the AbaR chromosomal resistance island and a large plasmid carrying TnaphA6. Plasmid DNA sequences were compared with ones available in GenBank. Conjugation experiments Proteasome inhibitor were conducted. The A. baumannii GC1 isolate G7 was shown to include the AbaR3 antibiotic resistance island. It also contains an 8.7 kb cryptic plasmid, pAb-G7-1, and a 70100 bp plasmid, pAb-G7-2, carrying TnaphA6. pAb-G7-2 belongs to the Aci6 Acinetobacter plasmid family. It encodes transfer functions and was shown to conjugate. Plasmids related to pAb-G7-2 were detected in further amikacin-resistant GC1 isolates using PCR. From the genome sequence, isolate G7 was ST1 (Institut Pasteur scheme) and ST231 (Oxford scheme). Using Oxford scheme PCR-based methods, the isolate was ST109 and this difference was traced to a single base difference resulting from the inclusion of the original primers in the gpi segment analysed. The multiply antibiotic-resistant GC1 isolate G7 carries most of its resistance genes in AbaR3 located in the chromosome. However, TnaphA6 is on a conjugative plasmid, pAb-G7-2.

Consistently, the inhibition pattern of aspartate transport and i

Consistently, the inhibition pattern of aspartate transport and its stimulation by phorbol esters are indicative

of a transport process due to EAAC1 operation. Under the conditions adopted, ATRA treatment causes the induction of proteolipid protein, an oligo-dendrocytic marker. These results indicate that, in C6 cells, ATRA stimulates the expression of EAAC1, possibly as a step toward oligodendrocytic differentiation, and constitute the first demonstration of the induction of this transporter by a differentiating agent. (c) 2008 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of IBRO.”
“Microbial metabolites are of huge biotechnological potential and their production can be coupled with detoxification of environmental pollutants and SNX-5422 wastewater treatment mediated by the versatile microorganisms. The consortia of cyanobacteria/microalgae and bacteria can be efficient in detoxification

of organic and inorganic pollutants, and removal of nutrients from wastewaters, compared to the individual microorganisms. Cyanobacterial/algal photosynthesis provides oxygen, a key electron acceptor to the pollutant-degrading heterotrophic bacteria. In turn, bacteria support photoautotrophic growth of the partners by providing carbon dioxide and other stimulatory means. Competition for resources and cooperation for pollutant abatement between these two guilds of microorganisms DZNeP Epigenetics inhibitor will determine the success of consortium engineering while harnessing the biotechnological potential of the partners. Relative to the introduction of gene(s) in a single organism wherein the genes depend on the regulatory- and metabolic network selleck kinase inhibitor for proper expression, microbial consortium engineering is easier and achievable. The currently available biotechnological

tools such as metabolic profiling and functional genomics can aid in the consortium engineering. The present review examines the current status of research on the consortia, and emphasizes the construction of consortia with desired partners to serve a dual mission of pollutant removal and commercial production of microbial metabolites. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Human rabies has re-emerged in Latin America due to bat associated transmission. We present data related to attacks by hematophagous bats in three riverine communities in the Rio Negro basin, Brazilian Amazon. A cross-sectional survey was carried out to obtain demographic and epidemiological data through interviews with 201 inhabitants. A total of 721 bat attacks with bites took place from 2004 to 2006, 238 (33%) reported by residents in Campinas do Rio Preto, 329 (46%) in Aguas Vivas and 154 (21%) in the community of Malalaha.

This terpene has exceeded its odor threshold in 28 of the 33 samp

This terpene has exceeded its odor threshold in 28 of the 33 samples, reaching odor

activity value (OAV) up to 10 units. Other terpenes such as geraniol and beta-citronellol have presented OAVs higher than 1 in one and five samples respectively. Compared to the composition of other aromatic piscos, the Italia variety exhibited considerably higher concentrations of some volatile compounds (nerol and acetic acid) and lower levels of some ethyl esters (ethyl lactate, diethyl succinate and ethyl hexanoate). buy STI571 Furthermore, when compared with other distillates it can be concluded that in general aromatic piscos seem to be characterized by high levels of beta-phenylethanol and beta-phenylethyl acetate (with the exception of some orujo and grappa compositions), and also by low levels of some ethyl esters, 1-hexanol and ethyl acetate. In general, the chemical differences may be sufficient to classify the samples by origin. Quantitative data revealed that samples from Ica are the richest in several aromatic compounds such as terpenes, AG-014699 solubility dmso beta-damascenone and beta-phenylethyl acetate and samples from Moquegua are the poorest in phenol compounds, which can have an impact from a sensory point of view. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Objectives: (1) To provide a critical analysis of the contemporary published research that pertains to complementary,

alternative, and other noncomplete decongestive therapies for treatment of lymphedema (LE), and (2) to provide practical applications of that evidence to improve care of patients with or at risk for LE.\n\nType: This study meets the defining criteria as a systematic search and review because it includes varied study types. All studies that met the inclusion criteria were evaluated for weight of evidence and value.\n\nLiterature Survey: The systematic search and review includes articles published in the contemporary literature (2004-2012). Publications

published from Ricolinostat price 2004-2011 were retrieved from 11 major medical indices by using search terms for LE and management approaches. Literature archives were examined through 2012. Data extraction included study design, objectives pertaining to LE, number and characteristics of participants, interventions, and outcomes. Study strengths and weaknesses were summarized. Study evidence was categorized according to the Oncology Nursing Society Putting Evidence into Practice level-of-evidence guidelines after achieving consensus among the authors. No authors participated in development of nor benefitted from the review of these modality methods or devices.\n\nMethodology: Extracted data from 85 studies were reviewed in 4 subcategories: botanical, pharmaceutical, physical agent modality, and modalities of contemporary value.

The heating effect of an RF magnetic field was analyzed in our pr

The heating effect of an RF magnetic field was analyzed in our previous papers. In this paper, we analyze the role of the RF electric field which may cause field emission from a microparticle. Our consideration is restricted by ellipsoidal metallic particles. It is shown that the heating effect becomes significant

when such microparticles have a needlelike shape, and therefore, the electric field amplification at the ends is high. In this case, the field-emitted current may cause the heating of the microparticles. The heating in single shots and in repetition-rate regimes is studied for the case of the combined effect of both the RF magnetic and electric fields.”
“Objectives\n\nIn keeping with the current emphasis on quality improvement and patient safety, a Canadian division of general internal medicine began holding weekly NCT-501 manufacturer morbidity and mortality rounds

(M&MRs) with postgraduate trainees. Grounded in the medical education and social sciences literatures about such rounds, we sought to explore the teaching and learning processes that occur in M&MRs in order to understand their role in, and contribution to, the current medical education context.\n\nMethods\n\nWe conducted selleck chemicals llc an ethnography of these M&MRs. We observed the rounds, conducted interviews with both staff doctors and residents and triangulated the resultant data. Concurrent, iterative data collection and analysis enabled sampling to saturation.\n\nResults\n\nStaff doctors had differing understandings of the role of M&MRs and valued different kinds of teaching. They did not think they were teaching medical content knowledge at these rounds, but rather

that they were role-modelling six skills, attitudes and behaviours, including ‘identifying and addressing 3-Methyladenine order process and systems issues affecting care’. Residents primarily wanted to learn content knowledge and tried to extract such knowledge out of the rounds. They did recognise and value that they were learning about process and systems issues. They also agreed that staff doctors were role-modelling other things, but had varying perceptions of what those were; most did not value this role-modelled learning as much as they valued the acquisition of content knowledge.\n\nConclusions\n\nThese M&MRs were effective forums for addressing patient safety and quality improvement competencies. They carried none of the negative functions attributed to such rounds in the sociology literature, focusing neither on absolving responsibility nor on learning socially acceptable ways to discuss death in public. However, this study revealed a marked disjunction between the teaching valued by staff doctors and the learning valued by their trainees.

Of particular interest, although EAE mice had memory decline over

Of particular interest, although EAE mice had memory decline over 30 d.p.i., their clinical disease scores improved during that time. Thus, our results suggest that

EAE mice had a significant progressive memory decline and that GA, administered at the time of immunization, partially guards against rapid memory decline.”
“A series of milnacipran analogs containing a heteroaromatic group were synthesized and studied as monoamine transporter inhibitors. Many compounds exhibited higher potency than milnacipran at NET and NET/SERT with no significant change in lipophilicity. For example, compound R-26f was about 10-fold more potent than milnacipran with IC(50) values selleck chemicals of 8.7 and 26 nM at NET and SERT, respectively. (C) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Human heterophile antibodies that agglutinate animal erythrocytes are known to detect the nonhuman sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc). This monosaccharide cannot by itself fill the binding site (paratope) of an antibody and can also be modified and presented in various linkages,

on diverse underlying glycans. Thus, we hypothesized that the human anti-Neu5Gc antibody response is diverse and polyclonal. Here, we use a novel set of natural and chemoenzymatically synthesized glycans to show that normal humans have an abundant and diverse spectrum of such anti-Neu5Gc antibodies, directed against a variety of Neu5Gc-containing epitopes. High sensitivity and specificity assays were achieved by using N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac)-containing probes (differing from Neu5Gc by one less oxygen atom) as optimal background controls. GSK2126458 price The commonest anti-Neu5Gc antibodies are of the IgG class. Moreover, the range of reactivity and Ig classes of antibodies vary greatly amongst normal humans, with some individuals having remarkably large amounts, even surpassing levels of some well-known buy AC220 natural blood group and xenoreactive antibodies. We purified these anti-Neu5Gc antibodies from individual

human sera using a newly developed affinity method and showed that they bind to wild-type but not Neu5Gc-deficient mouse tissues. Moreover, they bind back to human carcinomas that have accumulated Neu5Gc in vivo. As dietary Neu5Gc is primarily found in red meat and milk products, we suggest that this ongoing antigen-antibody reaction may generate chronic inflammation, possibly contributing to the high frequency of diet-related carcinomas and other diseases in humans.”
“Hereditary neuralgic amyotrophy (HNA) is an autosomal dominant disorder associated with recurrent episodes of focal neuropathy primarily affecting the brachial plexus. Point mutations in the SEPT9 gene have been previously identified as the molecular basis of HNA in some pedigrees. However in many families, including those from North America demonstrating a genetic founder haplotype, no sequence mutations have been detected.

Result: Thirty-four patients were proven to have bone metasta

\n\nResult: Thirty-four patients were proven to have bone metastases based on positive bone scintigraphy result. None of these patients had a PSA level of less than 10 ng/ml. Two patients had PSA level between 11 and 20, and 15 patients had PSA level between 21 and 200. For patients with PSA level over 201, 17 had bone metastases on bone scintigraphy.\n\nConclusion:

Based on the PSA level, the likelihood of positive bone scintigraphy result can be postulated. According to PSA levels, staging investigations can be more selective for patients with confirmed CaP. The risk of having positive bone scan is so low that it is not required for patients with PSA level less than 10 ng/ml. On the other hand, on studying the correlation Bcl 2 inhibitor between Gleason score and PSA level or bone scan results, Vactosertib supplier no statistically significant relationship was established. (C) 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Metastasis of

uterine leiomyosarcoma to the pancreas is rare. A 46-year-old woman was diagnosed with uterine leiomyosarcoma and underwent surgery. Thereafter, recurrences in the lung and subsequently in the pancreas were diagnosed. These lesions were resected and diagnosed as metastasis of uterine leiomyosarcoma. We report a rare case of uterine leiomyosarcoma with metastasis to the lung and pancreas, both of which were resected using aggressive surgery.”
“Intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) are one of the mainstays of treatment for children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. The

most important disadvantage of IACI is the pain associated with the procedure. Little is known about the children or parents’ perception of this pain. This study was undertaken to determine whether patients and their parents prefer sedation to receive IACI or not and why. A survey form was presented to patients and/or their parents from January to March 2010 to evaluate their choice of anesthesiologist-controlled deep sedation (with sevoflurane) vs. no sedation-no BEZ235 solubility dmso local anesthesia and the reasons for it. All participants had experienced the two options. In addition, there were two visual analog scales (VAS) to evaluate pain associated with blood draws and IACI, respectively. A total of 45 patients and their parents filled out the survey form. There were 34 females; the median age was 10.6 years, and the median duration of the disease was 6.4 years. Median VAS score was 1.3 for pain associated with blood draws, and 6, for IACI. Most children preferred sedation for IACI (26 vs. 15), although four did not show preference for either method. Children who preferred sedation for IACI were younger (p = 0.03) and had a shorter course of disease (p = 0.04). Conclusions: While most children prefer to receive IACI under sedation, a majority of parents prefer to avoid its risks. Children who prefer IACI without sedation are significantly older and have a longer course of disease.

1 +/- 1 5 cm H(2)O after TT, and the mean PE was 15 3 +/- 1 8 cm

1 +/- 1.5 cm H(2)O after TT, and the mean PE was 15.3 +/- 1.8 cm H(2)O/L. TT significantly increased the mean ratio of PaO(2)/fraction of inspired oxygen

(FiO(2)) from 243.2 +/- 19.9 to 336.0 +/- 17.8 mm Hg (P < 0.0001). The changes in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio after TT were inversely correlated with PE (r = -0.803, P < 0.0001). The 14 patients (54%) with normal PE (< 14.5 cm H(2)O/L) had significantly greater increases in PaO(2)/FiO(2) ratio after TT than did the 12 patients with abnormal PE (> 14.5 cm H(2)O/L).\n\nConclusions:\n\nMeasurement of PE during TT may be valuable for predicting improvement in oxygenation in ventilated patients with heart failure and pleural effusions. Patients with lower PE showed greater improvement in oxygenation after TT.”
“Yeast iso-1-cytochrome c (y-cyt-c) has five extra residues at N-terminus in comparison to the horse cytochrome c. These residues are numbered as -5 to -1. Here, these extra residues are sequentially removed check details from y-cyt-c to establish their role in folding and stability of the protein. We performed urea-induced denaturation of wild-type (WT) y-cyt-c

and its deletants. Denaturation was followed by observing change in Delta epsilon(405) (probe for measuring change in the heme environment within the protein), [theta](405) (probe for measuring the change in Phe82 and Met80 axial bonding), [theta](222) (probe for measuring change in secondary structure) and [theta](416) (probe for measuring change in the heme-methionine environment). The urea-induced HDAC inhibitor reversible denaturation curves were used to estimate Delta [GRAPHICS] , the value of Gibbs free energy change (Delta G(D)) in the absence LY3039478 clinical trial of urea; C-m, the midpoint of the

denaturation curve, i.e. molar urea concentration ([urea]) at which Delta G(D)=0; and m, the slope (= partial differential Delta G(D)/ partial differential [urea]). Our in vitro results clearly show that except Delta(-5/-4) all deletants are less stable than WT protein. Coincidence of normalized transition curves of all physical properties suggests that unfolding/refolding of WT protein and its deletants is a two-state process. To confirm our in vitro observations, we performed 40ns MD simulation of both WT y-cyt-c and its deletants. MD simulation results clearly show that extra N-terminal residues play a role in stability but not in folding of the protein.”
“P>This study compared the effect of isoflurane or propofol anaesthesia on postoperative hepatocellular injury, liver function and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in 60 cirrhotic patients, after partial hepatectomy using Pringle’s manoeuvre. In the isoflurane group postoperatively, both mean (SD) aspartate aminotransferase (day 1: 197 (123) U.l-1 vs 261 (143) U.l-1; p = 0.01; day 3: 465 (258) U.l-1 vs 578 (311) U.l-1; p = 0.02) and alanine aminotransferase (day 1: 575 (312) U.l-1 vs 714 (434) U.l-1; p = 0.04 and day 3: 776 (443) U.l-1 vs 898 (746) U.l-1; p = 0.

The development of protection in mice was investigated for the in

The development of protection in mice was investigated for the intra-peritoneal and intranasal immunisation routes. The results showed that CpG ODN alone, or in combination with aluminum hydroxide, gave enhancement in anti-pertussis toxin, anti-filamentous haemagglutinin and especially

anti-pertactin titers after mucosal immunisation. Higher macrophage NO levels indicating activation were found when the antigens were co-formulated with CpG ODN. Vaccines containing CpG ODN gave enhanced humoral and CMI responses with a shift selleck toward Th-1 and increased protection against challenge infection with B. pertussis in mice.”
“Using a recently developed high-resolution learn more noninvasive ultrasonic method, we recently demonstrated that the intima-media complex of the common carotid artery show a bidirectional multiphasic longitudinal displacement of the same magnitude as the diameter change during the cardiac cycle. The longitudinal movement of the adventitial region was smaller, thus, we identified shear strain and, thus, shear stress, within the arterial wall. The aim of this study was to evaluate the intra-observer variability of measurement of the longitudinal displacement of the intima-media complex and the

intramural shear strain of the common carotid artery in vivo using the new ultrasonic method. The evaluation was carried out by comparing two consecutive check details measurements on the common carotid artery of 20 healthy human subjects. According to the method of Bland Altman, we show that

the systematic and random differences for the different phases of movement are acceptable in comparison to the measured displacement and no significant differences between the two measurements could be detected (p > 0.05 for all measured parameters). The coefficient of variation (CV) for measurement of the different phases of movement was <= 16%, including short-term physiologic variations. The higher variability in the measurement of the intramural shear strain (CV = 24%) has several explanations, which are discussed. In conclusion, this study shows that the present first ultrasonic method for high-resolution measurement of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall is reliable and satisfactory for the further research of the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall in vivo. Further studies on the longitudinal movement of the arterial wall are important for developing an improved understanding of the physiology and the pathophysiology of the cardiovascular system. (E-mail: [email protected]) (c) 2010 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology.