6 Also, excessive collagen degradation in chorioamnion and amniotic samples from PPROM patients has been previously
FTY720 price demonstrated.6 Vitamin C, in addition to its antioxidant role, not only is an important factor in the synthesis of collagen but also controls the expression of type IV collagen gene.7,8 This assumption is in agreement with findings like the increased likelihood of PPROM as a consequence of smoking, which is a source of ROS.9 Maintaining cellular integrity in a normal pregnancy Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical needs the inhibition of peroxidation reactions, which is important to protect proteins, enzymes, and cells from destruction by peroxides.10 Antioxidant defense mechanisms contain both enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and free radical scavengers such as vitamin C. Because vitamin C is not synthesized in humans, its consumption is necessary for the prevention of scurvy, which
accompanies weakness of the collagen system. Vitamin C is the cofactor for enzymes like lysyl hydroxylase Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical and prolyl hydroxylase, enzymes that are very important for making hydroxylysine and hydroxyproline, which Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical play a crucial role in the stability of the structure of collagen triple helix.11 Predicting the probability of PROM and PPROM is of vital importance. Therefore, researchers have devised and assessed a vast array of clinical and paraclinical methods in search of an optimal modality. One of these methods is measuring the estriol level in serum or saliva. This assumption is based on the increase in the mother’s estriol.12 Estriol appears in the 9th week of pregnancy and rises Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical gradually with the growth of the fetus. This increase is accompanied by
a rise in steron and estradiol levels; however, estriol continues to increase until delivery – while steron and estradiol exhibit no clear changes after the 34th week of pregnancy.13 Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical Oxidative stress is known as a key feature in PROM.12 One study reported that antioxidant therapy conferred protection selleck catalog against hypochlorous acid-induced damage and concluded that PROM was, in part, due to ROS and antioxidant deficit, which resulted in membrane damage.14 Vitamin supplementation, including vitamin C, can prevent oxidative stress and consequently lower the risk of PROM.14 Estriol and afertrin are produced late in pregnancy by fetus germination. Estriol enters from the fetus membrane into the mother’s circulation and immediately transforms Batimastat to sulfate and glucuronide, which can be removed easily. Unconjugated estriol (UEs) transforms in the mother’s liver to sulfate and glucuronide and is repelled by urine with a half life of 20 to 30 minutes. In the mother’s circulation, UEs accounts for up to 10% of total estriol. Because UEs is not affected by liver and kidney diseases as well as antibiotics and because conjugated estriol has a short half life, only UEs was selected to be measured in this study.