“The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new m

“The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called “”subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects”" (SUSHI).

Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent

DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRN(SUSHI)) and conventional Ferrostatin-1 price DW-MRN images (DW-MRN(AP)) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading www.selleckchem.com/products/blasticidin-s-hcl.html scales. Scores of DW-MRN(SUSHI) were compared to those of DW-MRN(AP) using Wilcoxon tests.

Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRN(SUSHI) was significantly

better than that at DW-MRN(AP) (P < 0.05). However, overall signal intensity of brachial plexus nerves and ganglia at DW-MRN(SUSHI) was significantly lower than that at DW-MRN(AP) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, signal intensity of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee at DW-MRN(SUSHI) was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRN(AP) (P < 0.05).

The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased.”
“Replication-defective acetylcholine recombinant adenoviruses are the most widely studied replication-defective vectors for the potential treatment of inherited human diseases. However, broad clinical application of replication-defective adenoviruses in gene therapy is being hindered by the induction of vigorous innate and adaptive immune responses

against the vector that cause deleterious effects in the liver. V alpha 14 invariant natural killer T cells (V alpha 14iNKT cells) are thymus-derived innate T cells at the interface between the two arms of the immune response and provide full engagement of host defense. The pathophysiological role of intrahepatic V alpha 14iNKT cells during replication-defective adenovirus infection is not known and is the main focus of our study. Our data showed that intrahepatic V alpha 14iNKT cells were activated in response to adenovirus infection to induce significant levels of hepatic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and subsequent liver toxicity. Moreover, intrahepatic CCL5 production was selectively reduced by V alpha 14iNKT cell deficiency.

The Val158Met polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain react

The Val158Met polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length BI 10773 ic50 polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in 287 schizophrenia patients and 84 healthy control subjects. P300 recordings were obtained in a subsample. A significant difference was not observed between the patients and control subjects in the genotype distributions and allele frequencies. P300 amplitude in schizophrenia patients was significantly lower than that of controls. The P300 latency in schizophrenia patients was also significantly longer than that of controls. The P300 latency of Met homozygotes was significantly

shorter than that of Val/Met and of Val/Val carriers at Cz and Pz. The latency of Val/Met carriers was significantly shorter than that of Val/Val carriers at Pz. The results did not suggest an association between the polymorphism in the COMT gene and susceptibility to schizophrenia in the Chinese Han population. However, the COMT Val158Met polymorphism might be a susceptibility variant for P300 abnormality in Chinese Han schizophrenia. (C)

2008 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Neural activation of slow acoustic variations that are important for syllable identification is more lateralized to the selleck right hemisphere than activation of fast acoustic changes that are important for phoneme identification. It has been suggested that this complementary function at different hemispheres is rooted in a different degree of white matter

myelination in the left versus right MRIP hemisphere.

The present study will investigate this structure-function relationship with Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and Auditory Steady-State Responses (ASSR), respectively. With DTI we examined white matter lateralization in the cortical auditory and language regions (i.e. posterior region of the superior temporal gyrus and the arcuate fasciculus) and white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum. With ASSR we examined interhemispheric coherence to slow, syllabic-rate (i.e. 4 Hz) and fast, phonemic-rate (i.e. 20 Hz) modulations. These structural and functional techniques were applied in a group of normal reading adults and a group of dyslexic adults for whom previously reduced functional interhemispheric connectivity at 20 Hz has been reported (Poelmans et al. (2012). Ear and Hearing, 33, 134-143). This sample was chosen since it is hypothesized that in dyslexic readers insufficient hemispheric asymmetry in myelination might relate to their auditory and phonological problems.

Results demonstrate reduced white matter lateralization in the posterior superior temporal gyrus and the arcuate fasciculus in the dyslexic readers. Additionally, white matter lateralization in the posterior superior temporal gyrus and white matter integrity in the splenium of the corpus callosum related to interhemispheric coherence to phonemic-rate modulations (i.e. 20 Hz).

Our results suggest that MLV polarized assembly is mediated by a

Our results suggest that MLV polarized assembly is mediated by a direct or indirect interaction between both domains, thereby coupling Gag recruitment and virus assembly to Env accumulation at the cell-cell interface.

In contrast, HIV Gag that assembles outside of cell-cell interfaces can subsequently be drawn into contact zones mediated by MLV Env and receptor, a finding that is consistent with the previously observed lateral movement of HIV into the virological synapse (W. Hubner et al., Science 323:1743-1747, 2009; D. Rudnicka et al., J. Virol. 83:6234-6246, 2009). As such, we observed two distinct modes of virus cell-to-cell transmission that involve either polarized or nonpolarized assembly, but both result in virus transmission.”
“Background: To date, research examining the relationship between serotonergic genes and obsessive-compulsive disorder selleck compound (OCD) has yielded conflicting results. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between four serotonergic polymorphisms (STin2 VNTR and CUDC-907 concentration 5-HTTLPR of the SLC6A4 gene, and A-1438G (rs6311) and T102C (rs6313) of the HTR2A gene) and OCD.

Methods: 99 OCD patients, 456 non-OCD psychiatric patients, and 420

healthy controls from a homogeneous Spanish Caucasian population were genotyped using standard methods.

Results: All groups showed Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium for the analyzed genetic variability. A-1438G and T102C polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium. OCD patients showed an excess of STin2.12 carriers (12/12, 12/10, and 12/9 genotypes) compared with healthy controls (chi(2) (1)=7.21, corrected p=0.021; OR=3.38, 95% CI = 1.32-8.62) and non-OCD psychiatric patients (chi(2) (1)=6.70, corrected p=0.030; OR=3.24, 95% CI = 1.27-8.26). However, no differences were found between non-OCD patients and healthy Nitroxoline controls (chi(2) (1)=0.05, corrected p>1; OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.72-1.51). No significant differences were found with respect to A-1438G and 5-HTTLPR polymorphisms.

Conclusions: Our data provide supporting evidence of an association between the STin2 VNTR polymorphism of the SLC6A4 gene and OCD. (C) 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“Active DNA

demethylation underlies key facets of reproduction in flowering plants and mammals and serves a general genome housekeeping function in plants. A family of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases catalyzes plant demethylation via the well-known DNA base-excision-repair process. Although the existence of active demethylation has been known for a longer time in mammals, the means of achieving it remain murky and mammals lack counterparts to the plant demethylases. Several intriguing experiments have indicated, but not conclusively proven, that DNA repair is also a plausible mechanism for animal demethylation. Here, we examine what is known from flowering plants about the pathways and function of enzymatic demethylation and discuss possible mechanisms whereby DNA repair might also underlie global demethylation in mammals.

Thirteen patients (15%) carried TET2 mutations Patients with mut

Thirteen patients (15%) carried TET2 mutations. Patients with mutated and wild-type (WT) TET2 had mostly comparable pretreatment

characteristics, except for lower hemoglobin, better cytogenetic risk and longer MDS duration before AZA in TET2 mutated patients (P = 0.03, P = 0.047 and P = 0.048, respectively). The response rate (including hematological improvement) was 82% in MUT versus 45% in WT patients (P = 0.007). Mutated TET2 (P = 0.04) and favorable cytogenetic risk (intermediate risk: P = 0.04, poor risk: P = 0.048 compared with good risk) independently predicted a higher response rate. Response duration and overall survival were, however, comparable in the MUT and WT groups. In higher risk MDS and AML with low blast count, TET2 status may be a genetic predictor of response to AZA, independently of karyotype. Leukemia (2011) 25, 1147-1152; doi:10.1038/leu.2011.71; Selleck GSK2126458 published online buy Tipifarnib 15 April 2011″
“How transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling elicits diverse cell responses remains elusive, despite the major molecular components of the pathway being known. We contend that understanding TGF-beta biology requires mathematical models to decipher the quantitative nature of TGF-beta/Smad signaling and to account for its complexity.

Here, we review mathematical models of TGF-beta superfamily signaling that predict how robustness is achieved in bone-morphogenetic-protein signaling in the Drosophila embryo, how changes in receptor-trafficking dynamics can be exploited by cancer cells and how the basic mechanisms of TGF-beta/Smad signaling conspire to promote Angiogenesis inhibitor Smad accumulation in the nucleus. These studies demonstrate the power of mathematical modeling for understanding TGF-beta biology.”
“Ether-a-go-go (ERG) K+ channel

is a channel of potassium inward rectification. ERG channelopathy may be a cause of sudden unwanted death. The purpose of our study is to assess the effect of antiepileptic drugs on the expression of ERG K+ channel in the hippocampus using seizure resistant (SR) and seizure sensitive (SS) gerbils. As compared to controls, in principal neuron of hippocampus ERG immunoreactivity was significantly decreased after administration of AEDs in SS and SR gerbils. In addition, population spike in response to the second stimulus disappeared, thus population spike amplitude ratio was significantly reduced to zero. These findings indicate that AEDs reduce the expression of ERG channel in the hippocampus of the SR and SS gerbils accompanied by the enhancement of paired-pulse inhibition. In addition, the influence of AEDs on ERG expression in the brain may not be relevant to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Other injuries necessitating

Other injuries necessitating Dibutyryl-cAMP manufacturer emergency operation are lung parenchyma, intercostal vessels and internal thoracic vessels, and great vessels of the thorax. Gunshot wounds of the thorax remain more lethal than stab wounds. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2011;142:563-8)”
“Moral dilemma tasks have been a much appreciated experimental paradigm in empirical studies on moral cognition for decades and have, more recently,

also become a preferred paradigm in the field of cognitive neuroscience of moral decision-making. Yet, studies using moral dilemmas suffer from two main shortcomings: they lack methodological homogeneity which impedes reliable comparisons of results across studies, thus making a metaanalysis manifestly impossible; and second, they overlook control of relevant design parameters. In this paper, we review from a principled standpoint the studies that use moral dilemmas to approach the psychology of moral judgment and its neural underpinnings. We present

a systematic review of 19 experimental design parameters that can be identified in moral dilemmas. Accordingly, our analysis establishes a methodological basis for the required homogeneity between studies and suggests the consideration of PX-478 solubility dmso experimental aspects that have not yet received much attention despite their relevance. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background Several different animal models

are currently used to research the neurodegenerative movement disorder Parkinson’s disease (PD).

Results Models based on the genetic deficits associated with a small percentage of sufferers demonstrate the Megestrol Acetate pathological accumulation of alpha-synuclein characteristic of the disease but have few motor deficits and little neurodegeneration. Conversely, toxin-based models recreate the selective nigrostriatal cell death and show extensive motor dysfunction. However, these toxin models do not reproduce the extra-nigral degeneration that also occurs as part of the disease and lack the pathological hallmark of Lewy body inclusions.

Discussion Recently, several therapies that appeared promising in the MPTP-treated non-human primate and 6-OHDA-lesioned rat models have entered clinical trials, with disappointing results. We review the animal models in question and highlight the features that are discordant with PD, discussing if our search for pharmacological treatments beyond the dopamine system has surpassed the capacity of these models to adequately represent the disease.”
“Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) regulate a variety of genes to prepare cells to adapt and survive under a hypoxic environment. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as a new class of genes regulated by HIFs in response to hypoxia, of which miR-210 is the most consistently and predominantly upregulated miRNA.

Cytoplasmic Daxx is present in Fas-expressing cells during reovir

Cytoplasmic Daxx is present in Fas-expressing cells during reovirus encephalitis, suggesting a role for Daxx in Fas-mediated apoptosis following reovirus infection. Further,

in vitro expression of a dominant negative form of Daxx (DN-Daxx), which binds to Fas but which does not transmit downstream signaling, inhibits apoptosis of reovirus-infected cells. In contrast, in vitro depletion of Daxx results in increased expression of caspase 3 and apoptosis, suggesting that Daxx plays an antiapoptotic role in the nucleus. Overall, these data imply a regulatory role for Daxx in reovirus-induced apoptosis, depending on its location in the nucleus or cytoplasm.”
“The endospore-forming Gram-positive pathogen Bacillus anthracis is responsible for the usually fatal disease, inhalational see more anthrax. The success of this pathogen is dependent on its ability to subvert elements of the innate immune system of its animal hosts. B. anthracis spores,

which are the main infective agent, are engulfed and germinate in patrolling alveolar macrophages. In order for the infection to progress, the resulting vegetative cells must resist the antimicrobial oxidative burst mounted by the host NADPH oxidase complex. The response of B. anthracis to this and other macrophage-related stresses is therefore of major importance to the success of this pathogen, and consequently we have analysed the superoxide and peroxide stress stimulons of B. GSK2118436 price anthracis strain UM23C1-2 by means of a combined transcriptomics and proteomics approach. The results show distinct patterns of expression in response to paraquat (endogenous superoxide) and hydrogen peroxide stress. While the main response to paraquat is the induction of iron uptake pathways, the response to peroxide predominantly involves the induction of protection and repair mechanisms. Comparisons between the responses of B. anthracis and related soil bacterium, B. subtilis, reveal differences that are likely to be relevant

to their respective habitats.”
“In both mammalian and viral genomes, a large proportion of sequences are transcribed and annotated as noncoding RNAs. A polyadenylated RNA of 3.0 kb (T3.0) is transcribed from the opposite strand of the open reading frame 50 (ORF50) DNA template in the genome of Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus PRKD3 (KSHV) and has been annotated previously as a noncoding RNA. ORF50 encodes the replication and transcription activator (RTA), which controls the switch of the virus between the latent and lytic phases of the life cycle. Here we show that T3.0 encodes a small peptide of 48 amino acids (designated viral small peptide 1 [vSP-1]). vSP-1 interacts with RTA at the protein abundance regulatory signal (PARS) motifs, and the association prevents RTA from being subjected to degradation through the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. As a consequence, vSP-1 facilitates KSHV gene expression and lytic replication.

A self-assessment questionnaire for

A self-assessment questionnaire for gynecological emergencies (SAQ-GE) recently developed by our

group for the assessment of acute pelvic pain in women with gynecologic emergencies has been used to build clinical prediction rules for tubal rupture complicating ectopic pregnancy [10] and for adnexal torsion [11]. Our objective here was to develop and validate a clinical prediction rules for identifying PLTEs in emergency room patients with acute pelvic pain, based on SAQ-GE items. Methods Ethical aspects The study was approved by the French selleck chemicals llc Department of Higher Education and Research (n°06.336) and by the French National Committee for Information Technology and Individual Liberties (n°906253).

Study design and Selleckchem SN-38 setting We conducted a prospective multicenter study in five gynecology departments in the Paris metropolitan area, France. Four departments were in teaching hospitals (Poissy-Saint Germain en Laye, Créteil, Port-Royal, and Louis Mourier) and one was in a general hospital (Versailles). Selection of Participants From September 2006 to April 2008, all patients at least 18 years of age who presented to study-center gynecological emergency rooms with acute pelvic pain were eligible to complete the SAQ-GE on a voluntary basis. Exclusion criteria were a history of chronic pelvic pain, neurological or psychiatric disease, hemodynamic instability, and no knowledge of French. Patients with a verbal 11-point numerical rating scale (NRS) pain score lower than 1 and those with bartholinitis or breast pain were excluded. Self-Assessment Questionnaire buy Y-27632 for Gynecological Emergencies (SAQ-GE) The SAQ-GE was developed using a qualitative method [12] and advice from a panel of French experts, as reported in detail elsewhere [10, 11]. The 89 items cover six domains: (i) qualitative description of pain, (ii) intensity of pain, (iii) location and (iv) time-course of

pain, (v) vaginal bleeding, and (vi) other signs. The SAQ-GE was completed by the patients after appropriate initial pain management and before diagnostic investigations or surgery. The nurses collected the completed questionnaires, which were not made available to Aspartate the physicians. Thus, in this non-interventional study, all diagnostic and therapeutic decisions were made without knowledge of the questionnaire replies. Methods and measurements The final diagnosis was the diagnosis at hospital discharge established based on the physical examination, abdominal and endovaginal ultrasound, routine biology (if needed), computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen and pelvis (if needed), and surgical procedures (if needed: laparoscopy, dilatation and curettage, or diagnostic hysteroscopy). The diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy was based on laparoscopy or on an algorithm [13, 14], with laparoscopy being performed when a complication was suspected (i.e.

(b) Enhancement ratios of Mg and H concentrations by the MSE tech

(b) Enhancement ratios of Mg and H concentrations by the MSE technique as a function of Al content compared with that of the conventional method. High Mg doping was reported to result in Mg-rich precipitates. The primary Mg-rich precipitates were presumed to be Mg3N2[27, 28], which can be formed when Mg do not incorporate as acceptors in the desired substitutional sites. The see more substitutional Mg was suggested to be usually passivated by H during growth, and the corresponding Mg acceptor can be activated by postgrowth thermal annealing to dissociate the Mg - H complex [29]. The correlation Vistusertib mw between

the substitutional Mg and H was verified by previous theoretical and experimental investigations [30, 31]. Thus, the H concentration is most likely associated with C Mg if Mg is effectively incorporated in the desired substitutional sites. The enhancement ratios of H concentration for the MSE technique increase from 1.2 to 10 with increasing Al content, compared with that of the conventional method, as shown in Figure 4b. This simultaneous enhancement in H concentration demonstrates that the Mg was effectively incorporated in the desired substitutional sites

by the MSE technique. In this work, the high C Mg is the important basis for improving the hole concentration in p-type AlGaN epilayer. Besides the solubility limit, the high activation energy of Mg acceptors is another contribution for the low p-type doping of Al x CFTR modulator Ga1 – x N, leading to a low acceptor activation probability [5, 8]. In order to increase the overall p-type doping, more efforts on activating the obtained high C Mg will be included in future progress. Conclusions The MSE technique, which utilizes

periodical interruptions under an extremely N-rich atmosphere, was proposed to enhance Mg incorporation, base on the first-principles total energy calculations. During the interruption, metal flows were closed to produce an ultimate V/III ratio condition without affecting Acetophenone the AlGaN growth. By optimizing the interruption conditions, we obtained a high concentration and uniform distribution Mg in the AlGaN epilayer. The C Mg enhancements increase with increasing Al content through this method. Particularly, for the Al0.99Ga0.01N, the enhancement ratio can be achieved up to about 5 and the final Mg concentration was determined to be 5 × 1019 cm–3. Meanwhile, the simultaneous increase of the H concentration confirms the Mg effective incorporation in the desired substitutional sites instead of forming Mg3N2. The proposed approach, which is convenient as well as effective, could be used as a general strategy to promote dopant incorporation in wide bandgap semiconductors with stringent dopant solubility limits.

Zoospores generally are short-live and their survival is subject

Zoospores generally are short-live and their survival is subject to environmental

stresses. Majority of zoospores survive for less than 24 h [6–8]. Zoospore survival of individual species in aquatic environments depends upon water pH [7, 9], electrical conductivity (EC) [6], and CO2[10, 11]. Dissolved oxygen is another important water quality parameter. Dissolved oxygen concentration in ACP-196 mouse agricultural reservoirs varies among water sources and fluctuates seasonally as well as diurnally within the same sources due to activities of phytoplankton, change of temperature and atmosphere pressure [12]. Dissolved oxygen concentration in lakes, streams, and ponds that receive runoff from Dabrafenib concentration nurseries was 9.0, 7.0 and 12.0 mg L-1, respectively [13]. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in runoff water containment basin that was also an irrigation reservoir varied from 0.3 to 26.5 mg L-1 over time

[13]. These oxygen concentrations are much lower than the atmospheric oxygen level of 21% or 276 mg L-1 based on the air density of 1.2 g m-3 with 23.2% of oxygen at the sea level (http://​www.​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Atmosphere_​of_​Earth). Dissolved oxygen is known to affect the survival of fish and other aquatic organisms including algae [14]. Whether and how dissolved oxygen may affect zoospore survival of Phytophthora species in irrigation reservoirs is not known. Previous studies in relation to oxygen have focused primarily on other propagules in terrestrial rather than zoospores in aquatic environments. Species of Phytophthora grew well in oxygen concentrations from 0.04% to 21% (or 0.5–276 mg L-1) in soil or on agar media [15, 16]. Mycelia can grow under a wide range of oxygen conditions as long as its concentration was below 1.6% (or 21 mg L-1) [15, 17]. However, Phytophthora species produce BMS345541 in vivo sporangia in water films under a narrow range of dissolved oxygen concentrations. For instance, sporangium production was prolific at an oxygen

level of 5% (or ≥ 65 mg L-1) but production nil to few at 1% (or 13 mg L-1) [18]. Few oospores were produced at atmospheric oxygen levels of 276 mg L-1 or higher while numerous were produced at much lower levels at 13 and 65 mg L-1[16, 17, 19]. Disease development delayed in plants inoculated with P. cinnamomi at an oxygen range of 0.9–2.3 mg L-1 ADAMTS5 in aeroponic and hydroponic systems [20, 21]. These studies demonstrate that different propagules may require different levels of oxygen for production, growth and survival. Here, we report the effects of elevated and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in a simulated aquatic system on zoospore survival for several Phytophthora species. The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of aquatic ecology of Phytophthora species, establishing a base for devising sustainable mitigation strategies for these pathogens in irrigation water.

Radiologic stigmata of SBO are the presence/coincidence of multip

Radiologic stigmata of SBO are the presence/coincidence of multiple air-fluid levels, dilatation/distension of small bowel loops and the absence of gas in the colonic section. Plain film has sensitivity

and specificity ranging from 65% to 80% [28]. 7-Cl-O-Nec1 price Ultrasound can be useful only in expert hands; US is usually of limited value in bowel obstruction and/or in patients with distended bowel Depsipeptide cell line because the air, limiting ultrasound transmission, may obscure the underlying findings. The scan should be performed through flanks to avoid distended SB [29]. Usual US findings are: distention, peristalsis (differential diagnosis of ileus vs. mechanical SBO), differences in mucosal folds selleck around transition point, free fluid

(sign of ischemia) [30]. CT scan is highly diagnostic in SBO and has a great value in all patients with inconclusive plain films for complete or high grade SBO [31]. However CT-scans should not be routinely performed in the decision-making process except when clinical history, physical examination, and plain film are not conclusive for small bowel obstruction diagnosis [32]. CT can confirm the presence of complete obstruction and allow the diagnosis of the cause of SBO, it can also exclude a non-adhesional pathology and assess the occurrence of strangulation with a sensitivity and specificity higher than 90% and a NPV of nearly 100% [33]. IV contrast is necessary. Oral is not Water-soluble contrast follow-through is valuable in patients undergoing initial non operative conservative management in order to rule out complete ASBO and predict the need for surgery [34]. This investigation Oxalosuccinic acid is safer than barium in cases of perforation and peritoneal spread

and has possible therapeutic value in the case of adhesive small intestine obstruction [35]. MRI use should be restricted to those patients having CT or iodine contrast contraindications. – Conservative treatment and timing for surgery The management of small bowel obstruction caused by adhesions is controversial because surgery can induce new adhesions, whereas conservative treatment does not remove the cause of the obstruction [36]. Conservative treatment involves nasogastric intubation, intravenous fluid administration, and clinical observation. Strangulation of the bowel requires immediate surgery, but intestinal ischemia can be difficult to determine clinically. Several issues are raised when managing patients with ASBO.