Neuronal responses in the IC from 23 male SD rats were recorded b

Neuronal responses in the IC from 23 male SD rats were recorded by standard extracellular recording techniques following presentation of 4 ms white noise bursts, presented from either or both of two loud speakers, at different interstimulus delays (ISDs). The neural responses were recorded for off-line analysis before or after intraperitoneal administration of pentobarbital at a loading or maintenance dose. Data were assessed by one-way repeated measures analysis of variance and pairwise comparisons. When the this website ipsilateral stimuli were leading, pentobarbital at a loading dose significantly increased normalized response to lagging stimuli during recovery from anesthesia.

However, it was not the case when the contralateral stimuli were leading. At a maintenance dose, the normalized response to lagging stimuli were significantly

reduced, independent of whether contralateral or ipsilateral stimuli were leading. These data show that pentobarbital have no effect on the normalized response of leading stimuli but can prolong the recovery time of lagging stimuli to paired sources produced PE illusions, which was gradually attenuated during recovery from anesthesia. Thus, extracellular recording immediately after administration of pentobarbital should be avoided Poziotinib manufacturer in physiological studies of neural correlates of PE. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is a neurotropic alphaherpesvirus. VZV infection of human dorsal root ganglion (DRG) xenografts in immunodeficient 17-DMAG (Alvespimycin) HCl mice models the infection

of sensory ganglia. We examined DRG infection with recombinant VZV (recombinant Oka [rOka]) and the following gE mutants: gE Delta 27-90, gE Delta Cys, gE-AYRV, and gE-SSTT. gE Delta 27-90, which lacks the gE domain that interacts with a putative receptor insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), replicated as extensively as rOka, producing infectious virions and significant cytopathic effects within 14 days of inoculation. Since neural cells express IDE, the gE/IDE interaction was dispensable for VZV neurotropism. In contrast, gE Delta Cys, which lacks gE/gI heterodimer formation, was significantly impaired at early times postinfection; viral genome copy numbers increased slowly, and infectious virus production was not detected until day 28. Delayed replication was associated with impaired cell-cell spread in ganglia, similar to the phenotype of a gI deletion mutant (rOka Delta gI). However, at later time points, infection of satellite cells and other supportive nonneuronal cells resulted in extensive DRG tissue damage and cell loss such that cytopathic changes observed at day 70 were more severe than those for rOka-infected DRG.

We previously identified naturally occurring mutations in the S g

We previously identified naturally occurring mutations in the S gene that alter HBV virion secretion. Here we used transcomplementation assay to confirm that the I110M, G119E, and R169P mutations in the S domain of viral envelope proteins impair virion secretion and that an M133T mutation rescues virion secretion of the I110M and G119E mutants. The G119E mutation

impaired detection of secreted hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), suggesting immune escape. The R169P mutant protein is defective in HBsAg secretion as well and has a dominant negative effect when it is coexpressed with wild-type envelope proteins. Although the S domain is present in all three envelope proteins, the I110M, G119E, and learn more R169P mutations impair virion secretion through the small envelope protein. Conversely, coexpression of just the small envelope protein of the M133T mutant could

rescue virion secretion. The M133T mutation could also overcome the secretion defect caused by the G145R immune-escape mutation or mutation at N146, the site of N-linked glycosylation. In fact, the M133T mutation creates a novel N-linked glycosylation site ((131)NST(133)). Destroying this site by N131Q/T mutation or preventing glycosylation by tunicamycin treatment of transfected cells abrogated buy Ivacaftor the effect of the M133T mutation. Our findings demonstrate that N-linked glycosylation of HBV envelope proteins is critical for virion secretion and that the secretion defect caused by mutations in the S protein can be rescued by an extra glycosylation site.”
“We have previously reported that a progressively increased dose of MPTP over the course of 4 weeks induces

the gradual impairment of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) pathway and several behaviors [Goldberg et al. (in press) Neuroscience]. To our knowledge, this is the first report of specific behavioral deficits correlated with discrete thresholds of DA loss in this pathway. In that study, MPTP was administered 5 d/wk, with behavioral and tissue analysis Loperamide being carried out 3 days following the final injection at each dose. However, in order to better represent long-term progressive neurodegeneration the present study introduced a washout period of 10 days between each increased dose of MPTP. This implementation also controlled for any transient de-activation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), the enzyme that catalyzes synthesis of DA, caused by MPTP-induced oxidative stress which has been suggested following acute administration of the toxin [Smeyne and Jackson-Lewis (2005) Brian Res Mol Brain Res 134:57-66]. Additionally, by the end of the previous study, there was an ultimate decrease of 62% in the mean number of TH-labeled neurons/section in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) and a 74% decrease in caudate putamen (CPu) TH optical density with continuous MPTP.

Four primers

Four primers LY3023414 datasheet were designed for amplification of NS5B gene region with Bst DNA polymerase at a constant temperature of 65 degrees C. The products showed ladder-like pattern on 2% agarose gel, and can be visualised after addition of SYBR Green I dye. The detection limit of the

assay was 5 copies of the HCLV genome per reaction. No cross-reaction with other porcine viruses including different wild-type CSFV strains and the bovine viral diarrhoea virus was observed. The agreement between the LAMP and TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assays was 94.4% for the detection of 72 batches of HCLV vaccine. The assay provides a rapid tool for the control of vaccine quality and can be an accompanying assay of the LAMP for wild-type CSFV described previously for differential

diagnosis. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.”
“Human and animal studies indicate that drugs of abuse affect males and females differently, but the mechanism(s) underlying sex C646 nmr differences are unknown. The nucleus accumbens (NAc) is central in the neural circuitry of addiction and medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the NAc show drug-induced changes in morphology and physiology including increased dendritic spine density. We previously showed in drug-naive rats that MSN dendritic spine density is higher in females than males. In this study, we investigated sex differences in the effects of cocaine on locomotor activity as well as MSN dendritic spine 4-Aminobutyrate aminotransferase density and excitatory synaptic physiology in rats treated for 5 weeks followed by 17-21 days of abstinence. Females showed a greater locomotor response to cocaine and more robust behavioral sensitization than males. Spine density was also higher in females and, particularly in the core of the NAc, the magnitude of the cocaine-induced increase in spine density was greater in females. Interestingly, in cocaine-treated females but not males, cocaine-induced behavioral activation during treatment was correlated with spine density measured after treatment.

Miniature EPSC (mEPSC) frequency in core MSNs also was higher in females, and increased with cocaine in both the core and shell of females more than males. We found no differences in mEPSC amplitude or paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs, suggesting that sex differences and cocaine effects on mEPSC frequency reflect differences in excitatory synapse number per neuron rather than presynaptic release probability. These studies are the first to demonstrate structural and electrophysiological differences between males and females that may drive sex differences in addictive behavior. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The genomic RNA of picornaviruses is attached to a small protein (VPg) via a covalent bond between a tyrosine and a 5′-terminal uridine phosphate. The same structure is present in potyvirus and calicivirus families. VPgs play a key role in initiation of viral replication by acting as primers for RNA synthesis.

In isolated human aortic valve interstitial cells, our purpose wa

In isolated human aortic valve interstitial cells, our purpose was to determine the effect of irradiation on the production of osteogenic factors: (1) bone morphogenetic protein 2, (2) osteopontin, (3)

alkaline phosphatase, and (4) the transcription factor Runx2.

Methods: Human aortic valve interstitial cells were isolated from normal aortic valves obtained from explanted hearts of patients undergoing cardiac transplantation (n = 4) and were grown in culture. The cells were grown to confluence, irradiated with 10 Gy using a cesium-137 irradiator, and then lysed 24 hours after irradiation. Cell lysates were analyzed via immunoblot and densitometry for bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase, and Runx2. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance, with P<.05 indicating significance.

Results: Irradiation induced an osteogenic phenotype in human aortic valve S63845 cost interstitial cells. Irradiation induced a 2-fold

increase in bone morphogenetic protein 2, a 7-fold increase in osteopontin, a 3-fold increase in alkaline phosphatase, and a 2-fold increase in Runx2.

Conclusions: Radiation induces an osteogenic phenotype in human aortic valve interstitial cells. The irradiated cells had a significantly increased expression of the osteogenic factors bone morphogenetic protein 2, osteopontin, alkaline phosphatase, check details and Runx2. These data offer mechanistic insight into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced valvular heart disease. (J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2012;144:1466-70)”
“Glycosidases, the enzymes responsible in nature for the catabolism of carbohydrates, are well-studied catalysts widely used in industrial biotransformations and oligosaccharide synthesis, Phosphatidylinositol diacylglycerol-lyase which are also attractive targets for drug development.

Glycosidases from hyperthermophilic organisms (thriving at temperatures > 85 degrees C) are also interesting models to understand the molecular basis of protein stability and to produce robust tools for industrial applications. Here, we review the results obtained in the last two decades by our group on a beta-glycosidase from the hyperthermophilic Archaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus. Our findings will be presented in the general context of the stability of proteins from hyperthermophiles and of the chemo-enzymatic synthesis of oligosaccharides.”
“Objective: A better understanding of the response of the spinal cord blood supply to segmental artery (SA) sacrifice should help minimize the risk of paraplegia after both open and endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aortic (TAA) aneurysms.

Methods: Twelve female juvenile Yorkshire pigs were randomized into 3 groups and perfused with a barium-latex solution. Pigs in group 1 (control) had infusion without previous intervention. Pigs in group 2 were infused 48 hours after ligation of all SAs (T4-L5) and those in group 3 at 120 hours after ligation.

We report preplanned 2-year analyses

Materials and Me

We report preplanned 2-year analyses.

Materials and Methods: The CombAT study is an ongoing, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel group study. Men 50 years or older

with a clinical diagnosis of benign prostatic hyperplasia, International Prostate Symptom Score 12 points or greater, prostate volume 30 cc or greater, total serum prostate specific antigen 1.5 ng/ml or greater to 10 ng/ml or less and peak urinary flow greater than 5 to 15 ml per second or less with a minimum voided volume of 125 ml or greater were randomized to 0.5 mg dutasteride, 0.4 mg tamsulosin or the combination once daily for 4 years. Symptoms were assessed every 3 months and peak urinary flow was assessed every 6 months. The primary end point at 2 years was the change in International Prostate Symptom Score from baseline.

Results: Combination therapy resulted in significantly greater improvements in symptoms

vs dutasteride from month 3 and tamsulosin from month 9, and in benign prostatic hyperplasia Bucladesine order related health status from months 3 and 12, respectively. There was a significantly greater improvement from baseline in peak urinary flow for combination therapy vs dutasteride and tamsulosin monotherapies from month 6. There was a significant increase in drug related adverse events with combination therapy vs monotherapies, although most did not result in the cessation of therapy.

Conclusions: In men with moderate to severe lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate enlargement

(30 cc or greater) combination therapy provides a significantly greater degree of benefit than tamsulosin or dutasteride monotherapy.”
“OBJECTIVE: Image-guidance systems are widely available for surgical planning and intraoperative navigation. Recently, three-dimensional volumetric image rendering technology that increasingly PtdIns(3,4)P2 applies in navigation systems to assist neurosurgical planning, e.g., for cranial base approaches. However, there is no systematic clinical study available that focuses on the impact of this image-guidance technology on outcome parameters in suboccipital craniotomies.

METHODS: A total of 200 patients with pathologies located in the cerebellopontine angle were reviewed, 100 of whom underwent volumetric neuronavigation and 100 of whom underwent treatment without intraoperative image guidance. This retrospective study analyzed the impact of image guidance on complication rates (venous sinus injury, venous air embolism, postoperative morbidity caused by venous air embolism) and operation times for the lateral suboccipital craniotomies performed with the patient in the semi-sitting position.

RESULT. This study demonstrated a 4% incidence of injury to the transverse-sigmoid sinus complex in the image-guided group compared with a 15% incidence in the non-image-guided group. Venous air embolisms were detected in 8% of the image-guided patients and in 19% of the non-image-guided patients.

Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, thigh computed tomog

Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, thigh computed tomography (CT), and percutaneous

muscle biopsy were performed to assess changes in skeletal muscle mass at the whole-body, regional, and cellular level, respectively.

Mixed analysis of variance demonstrated that both groups had similar decreases in bodyweight (WL, -9.2% +/- 1.0%; WL/EX, -9.1% +/- 1.0%) and whole-body fat mass (WL, -16.5%, WL/EX, -20.7%). However, whole-body fat-free mass decreased significantly (p < .05) in WL (-4.3% +/- 1.2%) but not in WL/EX (-1.1% +/- 1.0%). Thigh muscle cross-sectional area by CT decreased in both groups (WL, -5.2% +/- 1.1%; WL/EX, -3.0% +/- 1.0%) and was not statistically different between groups. Type I muscle fiber area decreased in WL (-19.2% +/- 7.9%, p = .01) but remained CFTRinh-172 molecular weight unchanged in WL/EX (3.4% +/- 7.5%). Similar patterns were observed in type II fibers (WL, -16.6% +/- 4.0%; WL/EX, -0.2% +/- 6.5%).

Diet-induced weight loss significantly

decreased muscle mass in older adults. However, the addition of moderate aerobic exercise to intentional weight loss attenuated the loss of muscle mass.”
“Background. In older adults, studies demonstrate an inverse relationship between physical function and individual inflammatory biomarkers. Given that the inflammatory response is a complex system, a combination of biomarkers may increase the strength and consistency of these associations. This study uses principal component PRT062607 datasheet analysis to identify inflammatory “”component(s)”" and evaluates associations between the identified component(s) and measures of physical function.

Methods. Principal component analysis with a varimax rotation was used to identify two components from eight inflammatory biomarkers measured in 1,269 older persons. The study sample is a subset of the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study.

Results. The two components explained 56% of the total variance in the data (34%, component 1 and 22%, component 2). Five markers (tumor

necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha], sTNFRI, sTNFRII, interleukin [IL]-6sR, IL-2sR) loaded highest on the first component (TNF-alpha related), whereas three markers (C-reactive protein PtdIns(3,4)P2 [CRP], IL-6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) loaded highest on the second component (CRP related). After adjusting for age, sex, race, site, sampling indicator, total lean and fat mass, physical activity, smoking, and anti-inflammatory drug use, knee strength and a physical performance battery score were inversely related to the TNF-alpha-related component, but not to the CRP-related component (knee strength: (beta) over cap (TNF alpha) = -2.71, p = .002; (beta) over cap (CRP) = -0.88, p = .325; physical performance battery score: (beta) over cap (TNF alpha) = -0.05, p < .001; <(beta)over cap>(CRP) = -0.02, p = .171).

A quantitative one step RT-PCR was developed for identification a

A quantitative one step RT-PCR was developed for identification and titration of all three poliovirus serotypes. The assay could be an alternative to the traditional procedure based on cell culture isolation and subsequent determination of poliovirus serotype and virus titration. The method is based AZD1390 concentration on quantitative PCR performed with

reverse transcription reaction in the same tube. The multiplex assay that quantifies all three serotypes of poliovirus was found to be highly specific, sensitive, and takes only one day to complete. Published by Elsevier B.V.”
“Purpose: There has been significant criticism of how technologies such as SELDI have been used in biomarker discovery and how the data have been analysed. We initiated a proof-of-principle pilot LXH254 in vitro study using SELDI with stringent pre-analytic and analytical procedures with robust statistical analysis, to determine whether, under such conditions, using

different degrees of renal dysfunction as a model, useful data could be obtained.

Experimental design: SELDI-TOF-MS profiling with stringent quality control measures was used to examine the proteomic profile of serum from healthy controls (n = 30), patients with end-stage renal failure being treated by dialysis (n = 30) and renal transplant patients (n = 50) with varying degrees of graft stability.

Results: Principal component analysis of the data suggests that the continuum from normality to end-stage renal failure through ‘stable’ and ‘unstable’ transplant may be detected by SELDI profiling. Serum beta 2 microglobulin was identified as a major component and this was validated using immunonephelometry.

Conclusions and clinical relevance: This pilot study suggests that stringently controlled SELDI analysis next is able to detect proteins which may be useful in the stratification of patients post-renal transplant. Further studies using a larger cohort of patients with chronic allograft dysfunction, defined by protocol biopsies, are indicated.”
“Rapid and accurate diagnosis of viral respiratory infections is crucial for patient

management. Multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (mRT-PCR) is used increasingly to diagnose respiratory infections and has shown to be more sensitive than viral culture and antigen detection. Objective of the present study was to develop a one-step mRT-PCR that could detect 18 respiratory viruses in three sets. The method was compared with real time RT-PCR (rRT-PCR) for its sensitivity and specificity. Clinical specimens from 843 pediatric patients with respiratory symptoms were used in the study. 503 (59.7%) samples were detected positive by mRT-PCR. Of these 462(54.8%) exhibited presence of a single pathogen and 41 (4.9%) had multiple pathogens. rRT-PCR detected 439(52.1%) positive samples, where 419(49.7%) exhibited one virus and 20(2.4%) showed co-infections.

Androgen levels were lower in middle-aged than young women, which

Androgen levels were lower in middle-aged than young women, which was associated with decreased amygdala reactivity. Endogenous testosterone levels correlated positively with amygdala reactivity across the young and middle-aged women. The middle-aged women received a single nasal dose of testosterone in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover manner, which rapidly increased

amygdala reactivity to a level comparable to the young women. The enhanced testosterone levels correlated positively with superior frontal cortex responses and negatively with orbitofrontal cortex responses across individuals, which may reflect testosterone-induced changes in amygdala regulation. These results show that testosterone modulates amygdala reactivity in women, and suggest that the age-related decline

in androgen levels contribute to the decrease in amygdala reactivity.”
“Objective: This study examines the outcomes of mitral valve click here repair in a defined group of patients with mitral regurgitation caused by advanced myxomatous degeneration.

Methods: Advanced myxomatous degeneration of the mitral valve was defined as a degenerative process Fludarabine cost whereby both leaflets are voluminous and aneurysmal and the mitral annulus diameter exceeds 40 mm and has posterior displacement, as determined by means of echocardiographic analysis. Over a 16-year period, we identified 183 patients who underwent valve repair in this subgroup of myxomatous degeneration. Urocanase The repair consisted of relocating the posterior mitral annulus to the endocardium of the left ventricle at the atrioventricular junction, correction of leaflet prolapse, and annuloplasty. Analysis of perioperative

variables and postoperative outcomes were undertaken. The mean follow-up was 5.9 +/- 4.2 years and complete.

Results: The patients’ mean age was 52 years, and 118 were men. All patients had mitral regurgitation preoperatively. There were no early and only 8 late deaths (2 valve-related deaths). The survival at 10 years was 92% +/- 3%. Six patients required reoperation on the mitral valve, 5 for recurrent severe mitral regurgitation. The freedom from reoperation at 10 years was 93% +/- 3%. Six patients had severe and 21 had moderate mitral regurgitation. The freedom from recurrent moderate or severe mitral regurgitation at 10 years was 80% +/- 5%. We could not identify independent predictors of recurrent mitral regurgitation.

Conclusions: Mitral valve repair for advanced myxomatous degeneration on the mitral valve provides excellent early functional results, but late recurrent regurgitation is common, despite correction of dilated and displaced mitral annulus and leaflet prolapse.”
“Sex differences have been reported in a variety of affective and neurodegenerative disorders that involve dysfunctional dopamine (DA) neurotransmission.

Thalidomide reduced both the number of TUNEL-positive cells and t

Thalidomide reduced both the number of TUNEL-positive cells and the oxidative damage. However, post-treatment of thalidomide [20 mg/kg, three times (at just after, 1 h after, 3 h after MCAO)] did not reduce the infarct volume. In an in vitro study, we examined the effects of thalidomide on lipid peroxidation in mouse brain homogenates and on the production of various radical species. Thalidomide inhibited both the lipid peroxidation and the production of H(2)O(2) and O(2).(-) (but not HO(-)) radicals. 3-deazaneplanocin A ic50 We also measured the brain concentration of TNF-alpha by ELISA. The TNF-a level in the brain was significantly increased at 9-24 h after MCAO. However, thalidomide

did not reduce the elevated TNF-a BYL719 purchase level at either 12 or 24 h after MCAO. These findings indicate that thalidomide has neuroprotective effects against ischemic neuronal damage in mice, and that an inhibitory action of thalidomide against oxidative

stress may be partly responsible for these neuroprotective effects. (C) 2009 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Coal workers’ pneumoconiosis (CWP) is a chronic interstitial lung disease with a complex etiology that can occur after cumulative dust exposure. A case-control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) within CASPASE-8 (CASP8) promoter involved in resolution of inflammatory processes modulate the risk of CWP development. The study population consisted of 619 underground coal miners in the 5 coal mines of Xuzhou Mining Business Group Co. Ltd., China, of whom 315 were diagnosed with CWP. The association study between CASP8 -652 6N ins/del polymorphism with CWP by multiple logistic regression

analysis showed a significant association of the genotype del/del with CWP compared with to ins/ins genotypes, and showed that the risk was significantly higher for stage I CWP. Further analysis showed that in subjects with the del/del genotype there was significantly increased risk for CWP occurrence among younger individuals (66 yr) or those with longer duration dust exposure (26 Glutathione peroxidase yr). These findings suggested that CASP8-652 6N ins/del polymorphism may contribute to the genetic susceptibility for CWP development.”
“The aim of this study was to investigate whether nicotine acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in a more pronounced way in astrocytes co-cultured with microvascular endothelial cells from adult rat brain, compared with monocultured astrocytes, as a sign of a more developed signal transduction system. Also investigated was whether nicotine plays a role in the control of neuroinflammatory reactivity in astrocytes. Ca2+ imaging experiments were performed using cells loaded with the Ca2+ indicator Fura-2/AM.

The onset of acidosis initiates an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- st

The onset of acidosis initiates an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)- stress response that leads to the formation of cytoplasmic stress granules. zeta-cryst is transiently recruited to the stress granules, and concurrently, HuR is translocated from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. On the basis of the cumulative data, a mechanism for the stabilization of selective mRNAs is proposed. This hypothesis

suggests multiple experiments that should define better how cells in the kidney sense very slight changes in intracellular pH and mediate this essential adaptive response.”
“Several recent functional neuroimaging studies have reported robust bilateral activation (L > R) in lateral posterior parietal cortex and

precuneus during recognition memory retrieval tasks. It has not yet been determined what cognitive processes are represented by those activations. CB-839 price In order to examine whether parietal lobe-based processes are necessary for basic episodic recognition abilities, we tested a group of 17 first-incident CVA patients whose cortical damage included (but was not limited to) extensive unilateral posterior parietal lesions. These patients performed a series of tasks that yielded parietal activations in previous fMRI studies: yes/no recognition judgments on visual words and on colored object pictures and identifiable environmental sounds. We found that patients with left hemisphere lesions were not impaired Stattic in vitro compared to controls in any of the tasks. Patients with right hemisphere lesions were not significantly impaired in memory for visual words, but were impaired in recognition of object pictures and sounds. Two lesion-behavior analyses – area-based correlations and voxel-based lesion symptom mapping (VLSM) – indicate that these Erastin datasheet impairments resulted from extra-parietal damage, specifically to frontal and lateral temporal areas.

These findings suggest that extensive parietal damage does not impair recognition performance. We suggest that parietal activations recorded during recognition memory tasks might reflect peri-retrieval processes, such as the storage of retrieved memoranda in a working memory buffer for further cognitive processing. (c) 2007 Published by Elsevier Ltd.”
“This study aimed to comprehensively assess epidemiologic evidence on the relation between obesity and kidney disease (KD). From 247 retrieved articles via PubMed (1980-2006), 25 cohorts, 3 cross-sectional, and 19 case-control studies met inclusion criteria. Related data were extracted using a standardized protocol. We estimated the pooled relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) of KD for each body mass index (BMI) category compared with normal weight using meta-analysis models. Population attributable risk was also calculated. Compared with normal-weight individuals ( 18.