“The aim of this study was to introduce and assess a new magnetic resonance (MR) technique for selective peripheral nerve imaging, called “”subtraction of unidirectionally encoded images for suppression of heavily isotropic objects”" (SUSHI).
Six volunteers underwent diffusion-weighted MR neurography (DW-MRN) of the brachial plexus, and seven volunteers underwent
DW-MRN of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee, at 1.5 T. DW-MRN images with SUSHI (DW-MRN(SUSHI)) and conventional Ferrostatin-1 price DW-MRN images (DW-MRN(AP)) were displayed using a coronal maximum intensity projection and evaluated by two independent observers regarding signal suppression of lymph nodes, bone marrow, veins, and articular fluids and regarding signal intensity of nerves and ganglia, using five-point grading www.selleckchem.com/products/blasticidin-s-hcl.html scales. Scores of DW-MRN(SUSHI) were compared to those of DW-MRN(AP) using Wilcoxon tests.
Suppression of lymph nodes around the brachial plexus and suppression of articular fluids at the level of the knee at DW-MRN(SUSHI) was significantly
better than that at DW-MRN(AP) (P < 0.05). However, overall signal intensity of brachial plexus nerves and ganglia at DW-MRN(SUSHI) was significantly lower than that at DW-MRN(AP) (P < 0.05). On the other hand, signal intensity of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee at DW-MRN(SUSHI) was judged as significantly better than that at DW-MRN(AP) (P < 0.05).
The SUSHI technique allows more selective visualization of the sciatic, common peroneal, and tibial nerves at the level of the knee but is less useful for brachial plexus imaging because signal intensity of the brachial plexus nerves and ganglia can considerably be decreased.”
“Replication-defective acetylcholine recombinant adenoviruses are the most widely studied replication-defective vectors for the potential treatment of inherited human diseases. However, broad clinical application of replication-defective adenoviruses in gene therapy is being hindered by the induction of vigorous innate and adaptive immune responses
against the vector that cause deleterious effects in the liver. V alpha 14 invariant natural killer T cells (V alpha 14iNKT cells) are thymus-derived innate T cells at the interface between the two arms of the immune response and provide full engagement of host defense. The pathophysiological role of intrahepatic V alpha 14iNKT cells during replication-defective adenovirus infection is not known and is the main focus of our study. Our data showed that intrahepatic V alpha 14iNKT cells were activated in response to adenovirus infection to induce significant levels of hepatic chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) and subsequent liver toxicity. Moreover, intrahepatic CCL5 production was selectively reduced by V alpha 14iNKT cell deficiency.