or Phoma agminalis Sacc. (Sivanesan 1984). Colonies (of epitype) reaching 4 cm diam. after 20 days growth on PDA at 25°C, depressed to raised, cottony to woolly, with rhizoidal margin, grey, reverse darkened. Phoma-like anamorph has been reported by Chesters (1938) and Sivanesan (1984), but no anamorphic stage was observed in the cultures of IFRDCC 2044, CBS 109.77 and CBS 371.75 Apoptosis inhibitor after culturing 3 months on PDA. Material examined: on decaying wood (UPS, Scler. suec. n. 120, holotype, as
Sphaeria pulvis-pyrius Pers.); FRANCE, Ariège, Rimont, Saurine, on bark of Salix caprea, 10 Apr. 2008, Jacques Fournier (IFRD 2001, epitype). Notes Morphology Melanomma, the familial type of Melanommataceae, was formally established by Fuckel (1870, p 159) based on its small, carbonaceous ascomata, check details having: “sporen meist 2–3 mal septirt, selten ohne Scheidewand, braun oder wasscrhell.” (Chesters 1938; Fuckel 1870). Saccardo (1878, p. 344) 10058-F4 emended this genus as “Spores ovate or oblong, multi-septate, coloured.” Subsequently, Saccardo (1883, p. 98) extended the description
of Melanomma as “Perithecia gregarious, seldom scattered, somewhat superficial, sphaerical, papillate or blunt, carbonaceous, smooth or somewhat hairy. Asci elongate, for the most part accompanied by paraphyses, 8-spored. Spores oblong or somewhat spindle-shaped, two to many septate, olive or dark brown. Species of Sphaeria belong here for the most part.” Melanomma pulvis-pyrius was erected as the lectotype species (Barr 1990a; Chesters 1938). Barr (1990a) gave a detailed circumscription for Melanomma, under which Melanomma contains about 20 species (Kirk et al.
2001). Melanomma pulvis-pyrius is characterized by its gregarious, superficial ascomata with short papillate, cylindrical asci with a short pedicel and fusoid, olive-brown, 3-septate ascospores (Chesters 1938; Zhang et al. 2008a). Rucaparib mouse One of the diagnostic characters of Melanommataceae is the trabeculate pseudoparaphyses, although no typical trabeculate pseudoparaphyses could be found in the neotype (Scler. suec. n. 120, UPS) and epitype (IFRD 2001) of M. pulvis-pyrius (Zhang et al. 2008a). Phylogenetic study Phylogenetic analysis based on five genes (LSU, SSU, RPB1, RPB2 and EF1) indicates that Melanomma pulvis-pyrius forms a robust clade with Byssosphaeria, Herpotrichia and Pleomassaria siparia (Pleomassariaceae) and likely represents a separate family (or families comprising Melanommataceae) (Zhang et al. 2008a; Mugambi and Huhndorf 2009b). A more recent phylogenetic analysis included a group of coelomycete species with stellate conidia, isolated from Fagales trees clustered in Melanommataceae (Tanaka et al. 2010; Plate 1). Concluding remarks The Melanomma concept based on ascospore morphology appears polyphyletic. Metameris Theiss. & Syd., Annls mycol. 13: 342 (1915). (Phaeosphaeriaceae) Generic description Habitat terrestrial, saprobic or parasitic.