conducted in Moravia and Silesia [53], we found no significant as

conducted in Moravia and Silesia [53], we found no significant association between cadmium exposure and the risk for orofacial clefts in offspring [52]. There is increasing evidence for an interaction between zinc, cadmium, and iron during intestinal absorption [54]. Moreover, the secondary findings of the study by Czeizel et al. [55] showed a lower risk of cleft palate

in pregnant women with iron supplementation. However, we failed to find an association between maternal serum iron and risk for Tofacitinib chemical structure CL/P [56]. Animal models have shown that copper intoxication in early pregnancy results in abnormal embryogenesis. It is noteworthy that a combination of low whole blood zinc and high copper concentrations was seen only in Polish mothers of children with CL/P, but not in control mothers (4/116 vs. 0/64, respectively) click here [25]. Naturally grown produce is a richer source of trace elements such as zinc than similar cultivated produce. Red meat is frequently regarded as an unhealthy food and it’s low intake is often recommended. It is not taken into account that red meat is important for some micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin B12. Zinc from animal sources is belived to be most bioavailable. Increased total preconceptional zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk for neural tube

defects in California [57]. It is reasonable to consider zinc supplementation in women of childbearing age, because zinc can be administered easily and safely, is well tolerated and inexpensive. Additional studies, however, are needed to identify whether zinc supplementation in the periconceptional period results in functional and measurable outcomes for offspring. The non-essential amino acid citrulline

is poorly represented in food except in Cucurbitaceae fruits and birch sap, which have both been used in the treatment of reproductive disorders for centuries. Retrospective analysis of citrulline concentrations obtained from the results of the Polish Newborn Screening Program for Inborn Errors of Metabolism based on MS/MS revealed that low whole blood citrulline levels were three times more predominant in newborns with CL/P than in healthy individuals, 5/52 (10%) vs. 3/107 (3%), Oxalosuccinic acid respectively. On the other hand, high levels of citrulline were observed nearly two times more frequently in the control group than in patients with CL/P, 43/107 (40,2%) vs. 12/52 (23,1%), p=0.03 [26]. The integration of this study data with the existing literature suggests that maternal citrulline intake may contribute to reduced risk of abnormal embryogenesis [26]. The findings from the “citrulline” study provided important insights about citrulline/arginine-related genes as potential candidate genes for CL/P [26,30]. The findings have led to suggestions that an increased intake of citrulline may reduce birth defects risks. Modern humans have primate ancestors and probably differ little from them biologically.

g Keevallik et al (2007), problems may appear as a result of th

g. Keevallik et al. (2007), problems may appear as a result of the change from wind vanes (weathercocks) to automatic anemorhumbometers in November 1976. Back then, some parallel measurements were performed for a few years. It turned out that the new anemorhumbometers were systematically underestimating

strong (> 10 m s− 1) winds in comparison to the previous visual readings from the weathercocks. Therefore, during data pre-treatment, we adjusted the strong wind data from 1966–1976 with corrections provided by a professional handbook (Scientific-practical Handbook of the Climate of the USSR 1990). This procedure, which slightly reduces wind speeds over 10 m s− 1, was also briefly described in Suursaar & Kullas (2009). For example, a wind speed of 11 m s− 1 corresponds to the previous 12 m s− 1, and 20 m s− 1 is equivalent to the previous 23 m s− 1. In the case of both currents and winds, the positive GKT137831 cost direction is east for u and north for v when velocity components are used. The same wind forcing was also used in two locally calibrated wave hindcasts in 1966–2011. The semi-empirical model version for shallow and intermediate-water waves used, also known as the significant wave method, is based on the fetch-limited equations of Sverdrup, Munk and Bretschneider. Currently such models are better known as the SPM method (after a series of Shore

Protection Manuals, e.g. USACE 2002). The model version that we used is the same as the one used by Huttula (1994) and Suursaar & Kullas (2009): equation(7) Hs=0.283U2gtanh0.53ghU20.75×tanh0.0125gFU20.42tanh0.53ghU20.75, where the significant wave height Hs is a function of wind speed U, effective fetch length F and depth h; U is in m s− 1, F and h are in m, and g is the acceleration due to gravity in m s− 2. No wave periods or lengths were calculated, because it is not possible to calibrate the model simultaneously with respect to Hs and wave periods. The RDCP, with a cut-off period of about 4 seconds for our mooring depth, PLEKHM2 could not provide proper calibration data for wave periods, as the RDCP and wave models represent

somewhat different aspects of the wave spectrum. This relatively simple method can deliver reasonably good and quick results for semi-enclosed medium-sized water bodies, such as big lakes (Seymour, 1977 and Huttula, 1994). Also, in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea the role of remotely generated waves is small and the memory time of the wave fields is relatively short (Soomere, 2003 and Leppäranta and Myrberg, 2009). In practical applications, the main problem for such models seems to be the choice of effective fetch lengths, given the irregular coastline and bathymetry of this water body. Traditionally, fetches are prescribed as the headwind distances from the nearest shores for different wind directions, and an algorithm is applied that tries to take into account basin properties in a wider wind sector (e.g. Massel 1996).

All calculations were performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software (

All calculations were performed using GraphPad Prism 5 software (GraphPad, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA). The macroscopic analysis of alveolar bone showed that 11 day ligature-induced periodontitis caused intense bone resorption (Table 1), associated with root exposition and furcation lesion (Fig. 1(d)). ALD, at the lowest dose (0.01 mg kg−1), did not protect alveolar bone (p > 0.05) when compared to saline. ALD at higher doses (0.05 and 0.25 mg kg−1) was able to significantly inhibit bone loss by 33.5% and 57.2%, respectively, when compared to saline (p < 0.05). Although the animals

treated with ALD (0.25 mg kg−1) had not presented alveolar bone preservation similar to normal hemimaxilla ( Fig. 1(a)), the periodontal aspect was different from saline ( Fig. 1(g)). For the histological analysis, another assay was performed, and then the Tanespimycin manufacturer hemimaxillae were processed for histological analysis (Table 1). It was observed that alveolar bone and cementum resorptions were associated to an important inflammatory infiltrate (p < 0.05) on animals submitted to periodontitis ( Table 1; Fig. 1(e) and (f)), when compared to normal periodontium ( Table 1; Fig. 1(b) and (c)) (p < 0.05). ALD (0.25 mg kg−1) treatment significantly attenuated the inflammatory infiltrate and preserved periodontal ligament, root cementum and alveolar

bone ( Table 1; Fig. 1(h) and (i)), when compared to saline (p < 0.05). Serum dosages of BALP were analysed CP-868596 solubility dmso (Fig. 2). Saline presented a significant decrease by 45.6% on BALP serum levels (13.62 ± 1.56 U l−1) when compared to its baseline (25.04 ± 1.43 U l−1). The treatment with ALD (0.01 and 0.05 mg kg−1) caused a reduction of BALP serum levels, although not significant (p > 0.05), by 17.6% (19.92 ± 2.97 U l−1) and 19.5% (21.62 ± 2.39 U l−1), respectively,

when compared to its respective baseline (ALD 0.01 = 24.19 ± 1.62; ALD 0.05 mg kg−1 = 26.67 ± 2.15 U l−1). The treatment with ALD (0.25 mg kg−1) induced a significant decrease by 28.1% (19.17 ± 1.36 U l−1) for this enzyme after 11 days of ligature-induced periodontitis when compared Interleukin-2 receptor to its baseline data (26.67 ± 2.15 U l−1); however, the treatment with the highest dose of ALD prevented BALP reduction by 17.5%, when compared to saline after 11 days of periodontitis (p < 0.05). Serum dosages of transaminases (AST and ALT) and TALP were analysed in animals of saline and ALD groups (Table 2). On the 11th day, for AST and ALT, there was no statistical difference in the saline group when compared to its respective baseline. However, a significant decrease in TALP serum levels was observed in the animals from the saline group after 11 days, when compared to its baseline data. The treatment with ALD did not cause significant alteration (p > 0.05) in AST and ALT serum levels, but it reduced (p < 0.05) TALP serum levels when compared to its respective baseline data.

These hydrolases are normally confined at high concentrations in

These hydrolases are normally confined at high concentrations in cytoplasmic vesicles (granules) and only released upon cell activation. Detergents can easily free the proteases from the granules. It was shown that even the presence of one PMN per million RBCs is able to release enough proteolytic power to damage, if not fully inhibited, highly sensitive RBC proteins such as ankyrin

and protein 4.1.6 INCB018424 nmr Another common situation that could give rise to artefactual results is the preparation of “ghosts” from RBCs by hypotonic haemolysis.17 If the RBCs are contaminated by PMNs and the buffers used are not effectively supplemented with anti-proteases, the RBC membrane proteins will almost certainly be damaged (Fig. 1B, C). The workaround to this problem is the filtration of the blood and the use of freshly prepared lysing buffers containing a working concentration of anti-proteases. Other factors that must be standardised to be able to compare the obtained data between different laboratories are the temperature, shear stress, medium content, especially traces of serum, and the condition of cells used in the experiments. Furthermore, recent studies emphasise the importance of co-factors and substrates of several receptors, which may contribute to the experimental outcome. Temperature-related artefacts include ion misbalance and the ensuing changes in cell volume and Ca2 +-dependent

processes. Temperature Selleck Ribociclib sensitivity depends on the particular approach, but it can be severe, differing, e.g., between different types of ion transporters. The decrease in the activity of ion transporters with a decrease in temperature by 10° (Q10) is approximately

30-fold for the Cepharanthine Ca2 + pump,18 approximately 3-fold for the Na+/K+ pump19 and approximately 1.5–3-fold for most of the ion transporter systems.[20] and [21] Thus, temperature changes may have a pronounced effect on the intracellular Ca2 + levels and the Na+/K+ distribution. The temperature may not necessarily be fixed at 37 °C in particular experimental settings (e.g., controlling the temperature can be complicate for patch-clamp investigations). However, temperature as a factor has to be taken into account, and the potential side effects must be controlled. Serum and the multiple biologically active factors it contains, including albumin and factors bound to it, such as interleukins, prostaglandins, insulin and amino acids, can introduce artefacts. Depending on the experimental settings, investigations are conducted in serum-containing or serum-free media. Proteins introduced with serum have been shown to play an active role in regulating the activity of ion transporters in RBCs obtained from healthy and diseased subjects. Little is known about the serum components mediating the effects. It has been shown that lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates Ca2 + uptake by RBCs.

It is clear that adequate calcium intake is essential for bone he

It is clear that adequate calcium intake is essential for bone health [8] and [9] as well as having other benefits, including possibly protecting against obesity [67]. However, calcium intake above the level required by bones

is likely to be excreted through the urine [7] and there is even evidence that higher levels of calcium intake (greater than around 1100 mg) may increase the risk of hip fractures [10]. Higher levels of serum calcium may have other adverse consequences including increased cardiovascular and mortality risk [68]. Hypocalcaemia is also associated with muscle weakness and fatigue and a small study of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism NVP-BGJ398 molecular weight found the post-surgical reduction in serum calcium was PD0325901 datasheet correlated with improved strength [69]. Our use of a genetic variant of serum calcium provides additional insight into the effects of long-term

raised serum calcium levels on measures of physical capability. As a result, greatly exceeding the UK recommendation of 700 mg calcium per day for adults [70] is not advised, and a preference for food sources over pharmacological supplements may lead to smaller effects on serum levels [68] and [71]. Whilst further studies are needed to infer causality between BMD and physical capability, attention should still be paid to the modifiable factors of bone mass, such as exercise programs [27], that would be beneficial to osteoporosis risk [23] and [24] as well as to the maintenance of good physical capability. The results of this large multi-cohort study of older adults suggest elevated serum Thalidomide calcium levels may lead to lower grip strength but provide no evidence for its effect on other measures of physical capability. Genetic markers of BMD and osteoarthritis risk provided null or inconsistent associations with measures of physical capability. We thank Kate Birnie, Vanessa Cox, Jorgen Engmann, Nikki Graham, Karen Jameson and Andrew Wong for providing data. We acknowledge the support of Medical Research Council and Arthritis Research (UK). Boyd Orr Funding: The Boyd Orr DNA bank was funded by the Wellcome Trust (grant number: GR068468MA). Follow-up of the Boyd Orr cohort was supported by grants

from the Wellcome Trust, World Cancer Research Fund, Research into Ageing and the British Heart Foundation. The Caerphilly Prospective study was conducted by the former MRC Epidemiology Unit (South Wales) and funded by the Medical Research Council of the United Kingdom. The School of Social and Community Medicine, University of Bristol now maintains the archive. Samples from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) DNA Repository (EDNAR), received support under a grant (AG1764406S1) awarded by the National Institute on Ageing (NIA). ELSA was developed by a team of researchers based at the National Centre for Social Research, University College London and the Institute of Fiscal Studies. The data were collected by the National Centre for Social Research.

Addition of CRP or subclinical carotid atherosclerosis to convent

Addition of CRP or subclinical carotid atherosclerosis to conventional risk factors resulted in a modest increase in the ability to predict CVD. In the LBH589 nmr NOMAS population, presence of carotid

plaque considerably contributed to the better estimation of 10-year Framingham vascular risk [14]. More than a half of individuals in low and moderate FRS categories were reclassified into the higher risk category if carotid plaque was present. Traditional CVD risk prediction schemes need further improvement and cIMT and plaque may help improve CVD risk prediction with a direct implication for the risk stratification and treatment in vascular preventive programs. The localization of atherosclerosis is determined by hemodynamic forces, like shear stress and tensive forces, and additional local predisposing factors [27]. Since these local factors and hemodynamical

forces are distributed variably in the carotid vessels there are differences in the distribution and development of cIMT. A population-based study on the association of IMT at various sites and cardiovascular risk factors showed that IMT in the common carotid artery (CCA IMT) is correlated with risk factors for stroke and prevalent stroke. Conversely, intima–media thickness in the bifurcation, together with carotid plaque, were more directly associated with risk factors of ischemic heart disease and prevalent ischemic heart LGK 974 disease [28]. Systolic blood pressure seems to be the most important factor influencing IMT in the common carotid artery, whereas smoking may be more important for IMT in the internal carotid artery (ICA IMT). Both sites of IMT were independently associated

with prevalent CVD, with the ICA IMT having a larger area under the ROC (receiver operating characteristic) curve than CCA IMT (0.756 vs. 0.695) [29]. Furthermore, evidence from a population-based study showed variation in the progression of IMT at different arterial sites [30]. Progression rate of ICA IMT was significantly greater compared to IMT in the bifurcation or in the common carotid artery. In addition, ICA IMT correlated better with vascular Smoothened risk factors than CCA IMT. The results suggest that ICA IMT might be a better measure of CVD than the more frequently investigated CCA IMT. Carotid plaque is a distinctive phenotype of atherosclerosis [14]. Carotid IMT, however, is mainly related to hypertension resulting in a hypertrophy of the media layer of the vessel wall [31]. There is evidence of genetic influence on cIMT, whereas carotid plaque is strongly influenced by environmental factors [14] and [32]. Although cIMT has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, carotid plaque is a stronger predictor of cardiovascular disease in large population-based studies [33]. Nevertheless, differentiation of early plaque formation from increased cIMT is hard to determine.

In the present study, DA antagonists were directly injected into

In the present study, DA antagonists were directly injected into the mPFC in order to assert that output DA neurons of this area would be tested. Accordingly, we found that pre-treatment with both D1-like and D2-like DA antagonists prevented the spatial WM impairment induced by ∆9-THC in rats, suggesting that the impairment is due to excess dopaminergic activation in the mPFC. Since the blockade of DA receptors directly in the mPFC prevented the disruptive effect Alisertib cell line induced by ∆9-THC, we hypothesized in the present study that this disruption is the resultant of an excess of dopaminergic activation in the mPFC. This study provides the first evidence

of dopaminergic involvement in the disruption of spatial WM after ∆9-THC administration into the PFC. DA release occurs in several areas of brain reward circuits after administration of ∆9-THC (Lupica et al, 2004), as does an enhancement of mesolimbic DA neuron firing (Gessa et al, 1998). However, as cited above, these effects of ∆9-THC over DA release are most likely indirect. The connection between DA receptor stimulation and cognitive functions has been examined systematically. Venetoclax price An elegant study designed by Phillips et al. (2004) showed that DA efflux is elevated in the mPFC of rats after an extended delay of 30 min in

a situation in which spatial memory for the correct location of food had to be recalled. The increase in DA efflux in the mPFC was not related to reward but to the accuracy of WM, confirming the correlation of this function with DA activation. Furthermore, several other studies performed with high DA levels support the finding that excess DA release and turnover in the PFC are associated with impairment of spatial WM (Murphy et al., 1996, Zahrt et al., 1997, Seamans and Yang, 2004 and Phillips et al., 2004). Dopaminergic regulation of frontal cortical cognition was studied by Jentsch et al. (1998), who observed that high doses of ∆9-THC

(20 mg/kg/day for 14 days) that seemed nontoxic to mesocortical DA neurons selectively reduced PFC DA metabolism in rats. Methisazone Although the involvement of D1-like receptors in WM is widely recognized, recent studies have demonstrated the involvement of D1- and D2-like DA receptors on WM or executive functions in the PFC, and it has been suggested that when DA levels are high, the prefrontal network is modulated not only by D1 but mainly by D2 receptors (Floresco et al, 2006). Glickstein et al. (2002) observed that mice lacking D2 receptors show WM deficits (2002). Additionally, systemic administration of D2 agonists in humans improved cognitive functions, including WM and executive functions (McDowell et al, 1998), whereas administration of D2 antagonists impaired such functions (Mehta et al, 1999).

) Denser varieties of plastics such as nylons tend to submerge in

) Denser varieties of plastics such as nylons tend to submerge in the water column and even reach the coastal sediment. A recent significant finding is that minute fragments of plastic debris, termed microplastics, occur in oceans worldwide (Barnes et al., 2009) including even in Antarctica (Zarfl and Matthies, 2010). Microplastics, a form of man-made litter, have been accumulating in the oceans for at least over the last four decades (Thompson et al., 2004 and Thompson et al., 2005). Sampled from surface waters or from beach sand this fraction of litter includes virgin resin pellets, compounded masterbatch pellets and smaller

fragments of plastics derived from the larger plastic debris (Moore, 2008). The term ‘microplastcs’ and ‘microlitter’ has been defined differently by various researchers. Gregory and Andrady (2003) defined microlitter as the Staurosporine solubility dmso barely visible particles that pass through a 500 μm sieve but retained by a 67 μm sieve (∼0.06–0.5 mm in diameter) while particles larger than this were called mesolitter. Others (Fendall and Sewell, 2009, Betts, 2008 and Moore, 2008),

including a recent workshop on the topic (Arthur et al., 2009) defined the microparticles as being in the size range <5 mm (recognising 333 μm as a practical lower limit when neuston nets are used for sampling.) Particles of plastics that have dimensions ranging from a few μm to 500 μm (5 mm) are commonly present in sea water (Ng and Obbard, 2006 and Barnes et al., 2009). For clarity, this size range alone is referred to as ‘microplastics’ here; the larger particles such as virgin resin pellets are referred to as Dynein ‘mesoplastics’ after Gregory and Andrady (2003). Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) that occur universally in sea water at very low concentrations are picked

up by meso-/microplastics via partitioning. It is the hydrophobicity of POPs that facilitate their concentration in the meso-/microplastic litter at a level that is several orders of magnitude higher than that in sea water. These contaminated plastics when ingested by marine species presents a credible route by which the POPs can enter the marine food web. The extent of bioavailability of POPs dissolved in the microplastics to the biota (Moore, 2008) and their potential bio-magnification in the food web (Teuten et al., 2007) has not been studied in detail. Unlike larger fragments microplastics are not readily visible to the naked eye; even resin-pellets (mesoplastics) mixed with sand are not easily discernible. Net sampling does not of course collect the smaller microplastics and no acceptable standard procedure is presently available for their enumeration in water or sand. The following is only a suggested procedure derived from published reports as well as personal experience of the author. Water samples are filtered through a coarse filter to remove mesolitter.

All the values are positioned between lines y = 1 1 x and y = 1 2

All the values are positioned between lines y = 1.1 x and y = 1.2 x, which corresponds approximately to the above empirical interrelations. Figure 5-right illustrates the relations of the same statistical parameters behind the breakwater. There is a change in these relations when in higher periods the relationship tends to Tmax ≈ T1/10 ≈ Ts ≈ 1.5 Tm. This happens because when the waves cross the breakwater, a more significant reduction in the mean period Tm occurs (Figure 4) in relation to the other periods Tmax, T1/10 and Ts. Tm is more significantly reduced by the appearance

of high frequency harmonics (short waves), which are not so important from the engineering point of view because of their small height. So one should be careful when applying selleck chemical the mean period Tm to engineering purposes in the case Pirfenidone of submerged structures. As a consequence of wave spectrum deformation, i.e. wave nonlinearity effects in shallow water, an error could occur when estimating the mean spectral period, T0.2 (see list of symbols), which may be underestimated by as much as 70% of the statistical mean period Tm (Longuet-Higgins 1983). Since wave spectra are deformed when waves cross a breakwater, the question arises whether a similar mistake might be expected in the estimation of the transmitted mean spectral period T0.2 − t. Figure 6 illustrates the ratio of mean statistical and spectral wave periods for incident

and transmitted waves: mean spectral T0.2 − i fantofarone is compared with Tm − i for incident waves, and T0.2 − t is compared with

Tm − t for transmitted waves. It can be concluded that wave spectra deformation does not influence the calculation accuracy of spectral mean periods T0.2 − t. It has already been mentioned that in the process of wave transmission over a breakwater, the wave energy is transmitted to higher frequencies, along with the increase in the term m2 (second moment), resulting in a reduction in the mean spectral wave period of transmitted waves T0.2=m0/m2 and the reduction of the T0.2 − t/T0.2 − i ratios in the function of relative submersion Rc/L0.2 − i (Figure 7). The data from Van der Meer et al. (2000) for smooth emerged breakwaters with a similar breakwater geometry and similar wave parameters as in this paper are used for comparison. In such a way, the reduction of the mean spectral wave periods T0.2 for a wider range of relative submersion Rc/L0.2 − i, namely from − 0.15 to − 0.06, is obtained. It can be seen in the above figure that the ratio T0.2 − t/T0.2 − i tends to a value of ~ 0.68 when the relative submersion Rc/L0.2 − i tends to zero, taken from either the positive or the negative side. The results of Van der Meer’s measurements for the emerged breakwater are closer to this value, since the measurements were made for the lower parameter Rc/L0.2 − i. The obvious dependence of parameter T0.2 − t/T0.

The editor of this journal, Charles Sheppard, also published an a

The editor of this journal, Charles Sheppard, also published an article on this subject in the same year as me (Sheppard, 2007). In that editorial, Sheppard, who researches coral reef ecosystems, pointed out that on reefs in the Arabian/Persian Gulf which were once thriving, in the reporting year of 2007 living coral heads occurred at distances of between 20 and 50 m in any direction from each other. He went on to argue that these reefs had zero coral cover if recorded to the nearest

whole number but, even so, the corals could not be called extinct because they may occur elsewhere in the Indo-West Pacific. Moreover, if you were to measure cover over the reef to ∼0.0001% using a 1 km long transect you would, on the basis of the Sheppard counts, probably record one individual coral head and, thus, to some nitpickers, selleck chemical the reef could not be called dead nor the species extinct. This pedantic and contrarious position selleck compound to the scientifically blindingly obvious, typically asserted by politicians, bureaucrats or their functionaries, with agendas of their own, has vexed me for, it seems, almost all of my professional life.

Nevertheless. Because of their hobby, shell collectors and dealers place highest values on the rarest species – and, hence, give us an ability to ascertain, approximately, which one became extinct and when, as suggested by Dulvey for four marine snails. Although, such a suggestion of rarity should also be tempered with a pinch of salt for obvious financial reasons – involving, one could also suggest, an element of causality! Which brings me nicely to my interest in a particular group of bivalves. For 40 years I have been studying a group of bivalve molluscs belonging to the sub-class Anomalodesmata, which are characterised by really weird adaptations. Just to give one example. All the species of four superfamilies are predators

at abyssal depths in the sea. Yes, bivalve predators. In particular, however, representatives of one superfamily comprising two convergent families are called watering pot shells because the true shell is reduced to millimetre proportions and embedded in a large, Tolmetin adventitiously-produced, tube that in some species, for example, Nipponoclava gigantea, may reach a length of 33 cm. An impressive animal – even for a bivalve. One other feature of the two families is that, in both cases, all their constituent genera are represented by but a few species, in many cases only one. Not just this but each species is so rare it is only occasionally identified in museum collections and is never mentioned in benthic samples or ecological studies. Over the years, however, and by networking friends and colleagues, I have been able to examine preserved museum specimens of every constituent watering pot genera – save one, the monospecific Japanese genus Stirpulina represented by S. ramosa.