conducted in Moravia and Silesia , we found no significant association between cadmium exposure and the risk for orofacial clefts in offspring . There is increasing evidence for an interaction between zinc, cadmium, and iron during intestinal absorption . Moreover, the secondary findings of the study by Czeizel et al.  showed a lower risk of cleft palate
in pregnant women with iron supplementation. However, we failed to find an association between maternal serum iron and risk for Tofacitinib chemical structure CL/P . Animal models have shown that copper intoxication in early pregnancy results in abnormal embryogenesis. It is noteworthy that a combination of low whole blood zinc and high copper concentrations was seen only in Polish mothers of children with CL/P, but not in control mothers (4/116 vs. 0/64, respectively) click here . Naturally grown produce is a richer source of trace elements such as zinc than similar cultivated produce. Red meat is frequently regarded as an unhealthy food and it’s low intake is often recommended. It is not taken into account that red meat is important for some micronutrients such as zinc and vitamin B12. Zinc from animal sources is belived to be most bioavailable. Increased total preconceptional zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk for neural tube
defects in California . It is reasonable to consider zinc supplementation in women of childbearing age, because zinc can be administered easily and safely, is well tolerated and inexpensive. Additional studies, however, are needed to identify whether zinc supplementation in the periconceptional period results in functional and measurable outcomes for offspring. The non-essential amino acid citrulline
is poorly represented in food except in Cucurbitaceae fruits and birch sap, which have both been used in the treatment of reproductive disorders for centuries. Retrospective analysis of citrulline concentrations obtained from the results of the Polish Newborn Screening Program for Inborn Errors of Metabolism based on MS/MS revealed that low whole blood citrulline levels were three times more predominant in newborns with CL/P than in healthy individuals, 5/52 (10%) vs. 3/107 (3%), Oxalosuccinic acid respectively. On the other hand, high levels of citrulline were observed nearly two times more frequently in the control group than in patients with CL/P, 43/107 (40,2%) vs. 12/52 (23,1%), p=0.03 . The integration of this study data with the existing literature suggests that maternal citrulline intake may contribute to reduced risk of abnormal embryogenesis . The findings from the “citrulline” study provided important insights about citrulline/arginine-related genes as potential candidate genes for CL/P [26,30]. The findings have led to suggestions that an increased intake of citrulline may reduce birth defects risks. Modern humans have primate ancestors and probably differ little from them biologically.