14; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA]), clinical (blood

14; Life Measurement Instruments, Concord, CA]), clinical (blood pressure), and biochemical (lipid profile and apoB and apoA-I concentrations), and the DASH Diet Index was used to measure diet quality.

Results: 27 subjects (11 males, 16 females), with a mean age of 66.6 +/- 4.3 years, were included in analyses. The DERT subjects had significantly better Nutlin-3 order triacylglycerol and apoB concentrations and DASH Diet Index scores than the DE subjects post-intervention. Improvements were seen within the DE group in energy intake, fat-free mass, and systolic blood pressure and within the DERT group in body weight, percentage

of body fat, BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (all P < 0.05).


The addition of RT effectively reduced CHD risk factors, body composition, and diet quality in overweight and obese older adults; DERT was more effective than DE alone in improving DASH Diet Index scores and lowering apoB concentrations but was not more effective in increasing apoA-I concentrations. Future research is needed to determine if apolipoproteins are superior to lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations in predicting CHD risk.”
“Objectives. The aim of this study was to apply the dual-energy radiographic technique to teeth and to soft tissue simulated with Lucite and report the visual and quantitative results.

Study design. High-and low-energy image pairs were exposed of aluminum and Lucite calibration wedges and human teeth sections. Reconstructed images of the calibration wedges and teeth sections were viewed and measured.

Results. Milciclib concentration The aluminum reconstruction images accentuated the aluminum wedge and the teeth, whereas the Lucite reconstruction images minimized them. Correlations between the nominal direct and dual-energy measurements of the wedges and teeth thicknesses were found to be very good. The root-mean-square deviation

of the dual-energy reconstructions from the measured nominal thicknesses was found to be no greater than 0.6 mm.

Conclusion. These results KU-55933 datasheet demonstrate the feasibility of using dual energy as a means of selective cancellation of unwanted tissues and the measurement of posterior tooth density. (Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod 2010; 109: 604-614)”
“Research suggests that regional structural differences can be associated with the neurodevelopmental impairments faced by children born very low birth weight. However, most studies have used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the neonatal period or during adolescence. The current study used structural MRI to examine relationships between regional volume differences in toddlers (18-22 months adjusted age) born very low birth weight (n = 16) and full-term (n = 10) and neurodevelopmental outcomes, including cognition, language, and early executive functioning.

(PACE 2010; 451-459) “
“Methods to attempt more accurate pre

(PACE 2010; 451-459).”
“Methods to attempt more accurate prediction of intraocular lens power in refractive surgery ON-01910 mw eyes are many, and none has proved to be the most accurate. Until one is identified, a spreadsheet tool is available and can be used. It automatically calculates all the methods for which data are available on a single sheet for the

patient’s chart. The various methods and how they work are described.”
“Introduction: A number of prothrombotic and fibrinolytic disorders may lead to venous thrombosis. A 4G/5G polymorphism located in the promoter region of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene has been found to be commonly associated with the levels of PAI-1 and might be a risk factor for deep vein thrombosis (DVT). The aim of this study was to look for the potential association of this polymorphism with DVT in the Asian Indian population. Material and methods: A total Adriamycin purchase of 110 consecutive

patients ( M: F = 62: 48) with idiopathic DVT and equal number of age- and sex-matched healthy controls were the study participants. All study participants were typed for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, factor V Hong Kong/Cambridge mutations, and HR2 haplotype. Result: The variant allele for the PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism showed both genotypic (P = .0013, chi(2) = 10.303; odds ratio [OR] = 3.75) as well as allelic association (P = .0004, chi(2) = 12.273; OR = 1.99) with DVT. Factor V Leiden and factor V HR2 haplotype were observed in 10 (9.0%) and 13 (11.8%) patients, respectively. None of the study participants showed the factor V Hong Kong Cambridge mutations.

Conclusion: Our study shows the association see more of 4G allele with DVT in Asian Indian population. The higher prevalence of 4G polymorphism in patients with DVT (compared with controls) seen in our study is in concordance with previous reports from the Caucasian population.”
“Nepalese sumac (Rhus parviflora) is a wild edible fruit used for the treatment of various ailments including neurological complications and stomach disorders in the traditional medicinal system of south Asia (Ayurveda). Four flavonoids were isolated from ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction of Nepalese sumac fruits and their chemical structures were determined on the basis of NMR, fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FAB/MS), and IR. The efficiency of isolated compounds in attenuating glutamateinduced cell death in an immortalized mouse hippocampal cell line (HT-22) and inhibition of cycline dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) were investigated. Among the compounds, flavanols, fustin (1) and taxifolin (2), an aurone, aureusidin (3), and a biflavonoid, agathisflavone (4) were found to have protective effect against glutamate induced oxidative injury in HT22 cells. Aureusidin (3), a Cdk5/p25 inhibitor (IC50 3.

In rhEPO animals many of these apoptotic changes were observed, b

In rhEPO animals many of these apoptotic changes were observed, but reduced compared to untreated animals.

Conclusions: Mechanisms underlying HIE-induced hearing loss are based on apoptosis in inner ear; however central auditory pathway pathology occurs as well, likely contributing to changes in auditory processing and perception of complex signals not reflected by the ABR threshold shifts. For both clinical and basic significance ‘rhRPO’ is found to reduce SNX-5422 manufacturer those effects. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“A rapid, sensitive and reproducible HPLC method was developed

and validated for the analysis of adefovir (CAS 106941-25-7) in human plasma. The separation was achieved on a monolithic A-1210477 purchase silica column (Chromolith Performance RP-18e, 100 x 4.6 mm) using acetonitrile-ammonium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (6:94, v/v), pH 5.2, as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 ml min(-1). The wavelength was set at 260 nm. The assay enables the measurement of adefovir for therapeutic drug monitoring with a minimum quantification limit of 1 ng ml(-1). The method involves a simple protein precipitation procedure. Analytical recovery was complete. The

calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 1-40 ng ml(-1). The coefficients of variation for inter-day and intra-day assay were found to be less than 5%. The method was applied to the determination of adefovir in plasma from 12 subjects dosed with adefovir 2 x 10 mg tablets and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated.”
“Saquinavir (SAQ) mesylate (CAS 14984-506-7) is a potent inhibitor of the HIV-1 protease indicated in combination with other antiretrovirals for the management of HIV-1 infection. The objective of this study was to compare rate and extent

of absorption and to assess the bioequivalence between a new pharmaceutical equivalent tablet formulation containing 500 mg of SAQ mesylate and the innovator film coated tablet formulation. A randomized, single-center, open-label, two-treatment, two-sequence, three-period, replicated crossover bioequivalence study in 40 healthy male subjects was conducted. All subjects received 100 mg ritonavir (CAS 155213-67-5) twice daily for a run-in period of 3 days before treatment. Dosing was separated by a wash-out BI 6727 cell line period of 14 days. Blood samples were collected over 72 h and plasma levels of SAQ were determined by a validated HPLC/UV assay. The 90% confidence interval(CI) of the ratio of the geometric means for log-transformed C(max), AUC(last) and AUC(Inf) values were used to assess bioequivalence using the equivalence interval of 80-125%. Point estimate and 90% CI of the ratios of C(max), AUC(last) and AUC(inf) values were 94.9 (80.9-111.3), 97.4 (82.4-115.4) and 97.4 (82.5-115.0), respectively. Both treatments exhibited similar tolerability and safety. It was concluded that the new pharmaceutical product was bioequivalent to the innovator.

63 and P= 44, respectively)

Conclusion: Anatomic mast

63 and P=.44, respectively).

Conclusion: Anatomic masticator space GW4869 involvement affects the overall survival and local relapse-free survival of patients with NPC. When masticator space involvement includes the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, the disease should be classified as stage T4. (C) RSNA, 2010″
“We describe a technique for profiling of layered samples via near-field (NF) microwave

measurements. This technique is based on a recently developed theory of the NF microscopy of layered media. The deep profilometry involves solution of a nonlinear inverse problem in which sample properties are mathematically reconstructed from a set of experimental data obtained with a system of NF probes. We have built an effective computer algorithm that yields a fairly accurate YAP-TEAD Inhibitor 1 solution of this ill-conditioned problem. As an example, we analyze retrieval of a carrier concentration profile in a semiconductor. The process of retrieving some forms of profiles with the characteristic spatial scales of 10-100 nm, which are typical for semiconductor technologies, is simulated. A satisfactory accuracy (better than 10%-15%) is achieved for millimeter-wave microscopes with the probe apertures of 3-15 mu m. We simulate the measuring characteristics for a possible NF microscope circuit, which provide the basis for realization of the proposed method. (C) 2011 American Institute

of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3580167]“
“The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health

care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic RG-7112 nmr drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level.”
“Purpose: To determine conversion factors for the new International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 103 recommendations for adult and pediatric patients and to compare the effective doses derived from Monte Carlo calculations with those derived from dose-length product (DLP) for different body regions and computed tomographic (CT) scanning protocols.

001), higher BMI (P = 0 023), more instrumented vertebrae (P <

001), higher BMI (P = 0.023), more instrumented vertebrae (P < 0.001), greater total blood loss (P < 0.001) and cell saver infusion (P = 0.004) compared to the posterior only approach.

Conclusion. Combined anterior/posterior approach spine surgery is associated with an increased risk for pulmonary embolism compared to posterior only approaches.

However, regardless of the surgical approach, risk factors for PE common in both groups were operative time, total A-1210477 ic50 blood loss, number of levels fused, and the number of units transfused. Patients who undergo spine surgery with prolonged operative times and greater blood loss should be recognized as higher risk patients.”
“The explosion of genetic information from recent advances in sequencing technologies, bioinformatics and genomics highlights the importance of understanding mechanisms involved in gene expression and regulation. Over the last decade, it has become clear that small ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are a central component of the cellular gene regulatory network. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of endogenous, small, noncoding single-stranded RNA of similar to 22 nucleotides in length that act as posttranscriptional gene regulatory elements. MicroRNAs can

inhibit de novo protein synthesis by blocking translation this website through base-pairing with complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) and also suppress translation by promoting degradation of target mRNA. MicroRNAs are intimately involved in a variety of biologic processes including development, hematopoietic cell differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. To date, over 800 human miRNAs have been identified, though the biologic function of only a fraction of miRNAs has been elucidated. Here, we discuss how miRNAs are produced, identified and quantitated, and focus on several key miRNAs that govern expression of genes relevant to allograft rejection, tolerance induction and posttransplant infection. Finally, we discuss potential ways in which the miRNA network can be

modulated that ultimately selleckchem may offer new strategies to promote long-term graft survival.”
“Associations of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene promoter polymorphisms and pleural tuberculosis risk remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms at -1082, -819 and -592 sites and their protein production in pleural fluid (PF) in patients with and without pleural tuberculosis. IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms at the -1082, -819 and -592 sites were genotyped using a SNaPshot assay. Protein levels of IL-10 in PF were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were no significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies of IL-10 gene promoter polymorphisms at position -1082 between the pleural tuberculosis and the control groups. However, the frequency of -819 T or -592 A alleles was significantly more common in patients with pleural tuberculosis than controls.

All patients who had previous Fontan surgery and who subsequently

All patients who had previous Fontan surgery and who subsequently underwent liver biopsy at our institution between January 1990 and July 2010 were identified. For each biopsy specimen, portal and sinusoidal fibrosis were graded and medical records reviewed. Biopsy specimens from 13 patients were examined; the median time from

Fontan surgery to liver biopsy procedure was 16.9 years (range 6.9-25). At the most recent biopsy procedure, 12 patients (92 %) had evidence of portal fibrosis, including 1 patient with portal-based cirrhosis. Thirteen patients (100 %) had at least some degree of sinusoidal fibrosis, including 1 patient with centrilobular-based cirrhosis. Lower platelet count was associated ACY-738 purchase with greater degree of portal fibrosis by ordinal regression (odds ratio 0.84, P = 0.04), and patients with no or mild portal fibrosis had significantly higher platelet counts compared with those with moderate or severe portal disease

(278 +/- A 78 K vs. 160 +/- A 46 K, P = 0.005). Four patients underwent serial biopsy procedures; portal fibrosis was progressed in 3 patients, and sinusoidal fibrosis was progressed in 3 patients. After Fontan surgery, portal and sinusoidal fibrosis are common at liver biopsy and can progress over time. Lower platelet count may represent a marker of portal-based disease in these patients.”
“The delivery rates of 298 patients having see more preimplantation genetic diagnosis with aneuploidy screening (PGS) were compared with the delivery

rates of 144 PGS patients that cancelled the plan for PGS with embryo transfer on day 2 or day 3. The goal of this study was to compare the impact of embryo de-selection with PGS to embryo selection using sequential embryo scoring (SES) on outcome in poor-prognosis patients. Embryos with good sequential scores were more likely to have a normal PGS result than embryos with poor SES scores click here (34% versus 12%; P < 0.05). Patients proceeding with PGS had an overall delivery rate of 15% per oocyte retrieval. There was a significant difference in delivery rates between patients with less than six embryos and patients with greater than six embryos (6% versus 19%; P < 0.005). The overall delivery rate for patients having transfers without PGS was 23% (P < 0.05 compared with PGS patients) with no difference between low and good responders. It was concluded that PGS neither enhanced nor impaired delivery rates in high responding poor-prognosis patients yet SES may be more accurate than PGS as a means of selection for low-responding poor-prognosis patients. (C) 2010, Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The National Pediatric Cardiology Quality Improvement Collaborative (NPC-QIC) registry captures information on interstage management of infants with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS).

There were no significant complications

in either group

There were no significant complications

in either group. Transient AV block was seen frequently; however, this always resolved quickly. Average procedure time for the early era was 202 minutes (100-419 minutes) compared to 160 minutes (78-332 minutes) in the recent era (P = 0.01). Recurrence rates were 15% and 8% for the early and recent era, respectively.

Conclusion: Procedure time significantly shortens as a function of experience. After an adequate learning curve, the procedure can be performed in a very acceptable amount of time. (PACE 2011; 34:264-268)”
“Purpose: In an effort to assess the characteristics of mutation induced by different linear energy transfer (LET) radiation in higher plants, the mutational effects of carbon-ion beams and gamma-rays were investigated in Arabidopsis.

Materials and methods: The rpsL (Escherichia LY2606368 coli

ribosomal protein small subunit S 12) transgenic Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis/rpsL) mutation detection system was adopted. Dry seeds of Arabidopsis/rpsL were irradiated with gamma-rays and 208-MeV carbon ions (208-MeV (12)C(5+)), and the mutation frequency and mutation spectrum were examined.

Results: The frequency of mutant clones increased following irradiation with 208-MeV (12)C(5+) and gamma-rays. Mutation spectrum analysis showed that G:C to A:T transitions and > 2 bp deletions/insertions were significantly induced by both 208-MeV (12)C(5+) and gamma-rays. -1 and -2 frameshift mutations were characteristic in the gamma-ray irradiated group.

Conclusions: 208-Mev (12)C(5+) and gamma-rays induced different intragenic mutations in respect to the size buy CCI-779 of deletions, reflecting differences in the nature of the DNA damage induced. Our results also suggested that base substitutions derived from the generation of 8-oxoguanine were low in dry seeds. The mutation spectrum obtained in this study might have reflected the characteristic conditions Navitoclax cell line of plant dry seeds such as low water content and cell proliferation

“The magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in Terfenol-D/P(VDF-TrFE)/Terfenol-D laminate is investigated as a function of the applied static magnetic field (H(s)) and the frequency of the alternating magnetic field. A three-dimensional surface chart of ME coefficients (alpha(ME)) versus H(s) and frequency of the alternating magnetic field is drawn. The landscape highlights three strings of resonance peaks and an additional peak corresponding to the maximum of the piezomagnetic coefficient d(11,m) of the Terfenol-D plate. Based on the constitutive relations of Terfenol-D, the resonances are found to be caused by the mechanical oscillation of the magnetic layer under the applied alternating magnetic field. The ferromagnetic resonance frequency can be tuned by varying H(s). Finite element simulations fit well with the experimental data.

104 nm Finally, we find that the achievable wave speeds in monol

104 nm. Finally, we find that the achievable wave speeds in monolayer graphene are found to exceed those reported previously for single walled carbon nanotubes, while the frequency of wave propagation in the graphene monolayer

is found to reach the terahertz range, similar to that of carbon nanotubes. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3633230]“
“Background: Zinc is involved in many essential cellular functions, including DNA repair and immune system maintenance. Although experimental evidence supports a role for zinc in prostate carcinogenesis, epidemiologic data are inconsistent; no data on cancer-specific survival have been reported.

Objective: Our objective was to determine whether dietary zinc assessed near the time of prostate cancer diagnosis is associated with improved disease-specific survival.

Design: This population-based cohort consists of 525 men Fer-1 datasheet aged < 80 y from Orebro County, Sweden, with a diagnosis of prostate cancer

made between 1989 and 1994. Study participants completed self-administered food-frequency questionnaires, and zinc intake was derived from nutrient databases. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for time to death from prostate cancer as well as death from all causes through February 2009 by quartile (Q) of dietary zinc intake. Models were also stratified by disease stage at diagnosis (localized or advanced).

Results: With a median follow-up of 6.4 y, LY333531 218 (42%) men died of prostate cancer and 257 (49%) died of other causes. High dietary zinc intake was associated with a reduced risk of prostate cancer-specific mortality (HRQ4 vs Q1: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.94; P for trend = 0.05) in the study population. The association was stronger in men with localized tumors (HR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.66; P for trend = 0.005). Zinc intake was not associated with mortality from other causes.

Conclusion: These ALK cancer results suggest that high dietary intake of zinc is associated with lower prostate cancer-specific mortality after

diagnosis, particularly in men with localized disease. Am J Clin Nutr 2011;93:586-93.”
“The real utilisation scenario of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in Swiss ICUs has never been reported. Using a survey methodology, we developed a questionnaire sent to the directors of the 79 adult ICUs to identify the perceived pattern of NIV utilisation.

We obtained a response rate of 62%. The overall utilisation rate for NIV was 26% of all mechanical ventilations, but we found significant differences in the utilisation rates among different linguistic areas, ranging from 20% in the German part to 48% in the French part (p < 0.01). NIV was mainly indicated for the acute exacerbations of COPD (AeCOPD), acute cardiogenic pulmonary edema (ACPE) and acute respiratory failure (ARF) in selected do-not-intubate patients.

“Objectives: We evaluated the role of oxidative stress in

“Objectives: We evaluated the role of oxidative stress in Sudan IV-induced DNA damage, using human liver-derived HepG2 cells. Methods: The DNA damaging effects of Sudan IV in HepG2 cells were evaluated by alkaline single check details cell gel electrophoresis assay and micronucleus test (MNT). To clarify the underlying mechanisms, we monitored the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by 2, 7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate assay and the level of oxidative DNA damage

by immunoperoxidase staining for 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG). Furthermore, the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level was moderated by pretreatment with buthionine-(S, R)-sulfoximine (BSO), a specific GSH synthesis inhibitor. Results: A significant dose-dependent increment in DNA migration was detected at all tested concentrations (25-100 mu M) of Sudan IV. And in the MNT, a significant increase of the frequency of micronuclei CAL-101 molecular weight was found at higher tested concentrations (50-100 mu M). The data suggested that Sudan IV caused DNA strand breaks and chromosome breaks. In addition, significantly increased levels of ROS, 8-OHdG formation were observed in HepG2 cells. It was also found that depletion of GSH in HepG2 cells

with BSO dramatically increased the susceptibility of HepG2 cells to Sudan IV-induced DNA damage. Conclusions: Based on these data we believe that Sudan IV exerts toxic effects in HepG2 cells, probably through oxidative DNA damage induced by intracellular ROS and depletion of GSH. (C) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 26: 292-299, 2011.”
“In this study, the correlation between color of redness and I.-carnitine content in meats was investigated

using microplate enzymatic assays. The L-carnitine levels and its storage stabilities of domestic and imported livestock products in Korean markets were also studied. The results showed a high correlation (r=0.9764) between L-carnitine content CYT387 manufacturer and redness values of homogenized meat solution. Korean native cattle (‘Hanwoo’) meat showed the highest L-Carnitine content (3.64 +/- 0.14 mu mol/g) in meat samples analyzed in this study. The L-carnitine level of die meats decreases during periods of storage in cold and freezing conditions, and the level of decrease was more significant at 4 degrees C than at -20 degrees C, which Suggests that the storage stability Of L-carnitine is related to its storage temperature. This study gives reliable data about correlation between meat color of redness and L-carnitine content, and gives useful information to determine the characteristics of ‘Hanwoo’.”
“Background: Case-cohort studies have become common in epidemiological studies of rare disease, with Cox regression models the principal method used in their analysis. However, no appropriate procedures to assess the assumption of proportional hazards of case-cohort Cox models have been proposed.

Results: EORA patients were associated with high HAQDI (>= 1)

Results: EORA patients were associated with high HAQDI (>= 1) in bivariable analysis [odds ratio (OR) 1.36, confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.77]. However, in multivariable analysis, not elderly onset but patients’ age, female gender, high disease activity, disease duration over 10 years, and comorbidity BV-6 in vivo with cardiovascular disease were associated with high HAQDI. Only in a predefined subgroup with disease duration <10 years, elderly onset was an independent influencing factor

for the functional disability of RA patients (OR 3.04, CI 1.85-5.67: disease duration of <5 years, OR 3.07, CI 1.64-5.74: disease duration of 5 to 10 years).

Conclusions: Disease onset in older age was associated independently with functional disability of RA patients who have relatively short disease duration. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Semin Arthritis Rheum 42:23-31″
“Background: Severe peritoneal injury and encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) as complications of long-term peritoneal dialysis (PD) are issues of concern. The usefulness of peritoneal lavage after withdrawal of PD and the risk factors for EPS have not been addressed until now. Little is known about mesothelial cell area (MCA) in the effluent as a marker of peritoneal injury. In the present study, we investigated the clinical significance of peritoneal lavage after PD withdrawal and tried to clarify the risk factors

related to MCA, with the aim of preventing EPS. We also developed an algorithm for the clinical management of long-term PD patients.

Methods: learn more We assigned 247 PD patients to one of two cohorts after PD withdrawal: a non-lavage group (73 patients) and a lavage group (174 patients). To clarify the AZD1208 risk factors, we studied these potential predictors: PD duration, dialysate-to-plasma ratio of creatinine (D/P Cr)

at the time of PD withdrawal, frequency of peritoneal lavage, type of PD or lavage solution, MCA at the time of PD withdrawal (“”PD area”"), and MCA at the time of peritoneal lavage withdrawal or censoring (“”LA area”"). Recurrent intestinal obstruction was defined as the main manifestation of EPS. Diagnostic performance and cut-off values were then calculated for the selected risk factors.

Results: The overall incidence of EPS was significantly lower in the lavage group, at 6.9% (5.2% during lavage and 2.5% after lavage), than in the non-lavage group, at 15.1%. The risk factors and cut-off values were PD area (350 mu m(2)) and PD duration (78 months) for the non-lavage group; and PD area (350 mu m(2)) and LA area (320 mu m(2)) for the lavage group. Patients with a PD duration of 78 months or more and a PD area of 350 mu m(2) or more were defined as high-risk patients in the non-lavage group (risk ratio: 11.14), and patients with a PD area of 350 mu m(2) or more and an LA area of 320 mu m(2) or more were defined as high-risk patients in the lavage group (risk ratio: 10.43).