These two classes of HMGR share only 14–20% sequence identities. Class I HMGR differs from class II HMGR by having a ‘cis-loop,’ which is strictly conserved in class I HMGR and is involved in substrate binding. Recently, a number of reports have been published on the isolation of Actinobacteria from marine organisms. Screening of these marine-derived Actinobacteria has led to the discovery of many new bioactive metabolites. One typical example is the novel compound salinosporamide A (Feling et al., 2003), which is produced Selleckchem Bortezomib by members of the genus Salinispora, and
has been identified as a proteasome inhibitor possessing anticancer activity. More than 70% of the Earth’s surface is covered by oceans inhabited by a high and as yet unexplored diversity of marine organisms. Marine sponges are of special interest as they are filter feeders and
assimilate bacteria during the filtration process. These marine sponges and seawater itself may support a number of undiscovered Actinobacteria, as is evident from culture-independent approaches such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries (Zhang et al., 2006). Therefore, these uncultured marine Actinobacteria present a major resource for the discovery of new bioactive metabolites. Our group has recently engaged in the isolation of microorganisms, including fungi and Actinobacteria, from marine HSP inhibitor review sources. Some of the isolated microorganisms have been found to produce novel compounds, namely, JBIR-27, -28 (Motohashi et al., 2009a), JBIR-15 (Motohashi et al., 2009b), JBIR-37, -38 (Izumikawa et al., 2009), and JBIR-31 (Izumikawa et al., 2010). Among Actinobacteria, many novel members of the genus Streptomyces have been isolated, and these strains have been found to produce a number of novel compounds (S.T. Khan, T. Tamura,
M. Takagi & K. Shin-ya, unpublished data; S.T. Khan, H. Komaki, K. Motohashi, I. Kozone, A. Mukai, M. Takagi & K. Shin-ya, unpublished data). Thus, in the present study, we attempted to isolate Actinobacteria from marine organisms and sediments, screened the Arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase strains for the presence of the hmgr gene as the marker of the mevalonate pathway, and isolated isoprenoid compounds from the cultures of these Actinobacteria. We collected 18 marine sponges, two marine sediments, and a tunicate sample from the sea near Tateyama, Chiba Prefecture, and from areas near Ishigaki Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan (Table 1). Samples were retrieved by scuba diving using sterile spades and were collected in plastic bags. The samples collected were processed on the same day as described below. Sponges and tunicate were rinsed three times with sterile natural seawater to remove the bacteria attached to the surface. These samples (wet weight: 20 g) were then either homogenized in a blender or cut into very small pieces using sterile scissors. Homogenized samples were resuspended in 30 mL of sterile seawater.