We have previously identified the actin-bundling protein L-plasti

We have previously identified the actin-bundling protein L-plastin (LPL) as a requisite intermediary in both naive B and T lymphocyte migration and in T-cell activation. We tested the hypothesis that humoral immunity would require LPL. We show that mice lacking LPL demonstrated defective germinal center formation and reduced production of T-cell-dependent antibodies. T cells from LPL-/- mice exhibited defective expansion of the follicular helper T population. Reduced expansion of LPL-/- follicular helper T cells correlated with impaired trafficking to or retention of cells in

the spleen following challenge, learn more highlighting the importance of initial lymphocyte recruitment to the eventual success of the immune response. Furthermore, LPL-/- B cells demonstrated cell-intrinsic defects in population expansion and in differentiation into germinal center B cells. LPL thus modulates both T- and B-cell function during the germinal center reaction and the production of T-cell-dependent

antibody responses.”
“Objectives: To explore Rabusertib nmr factors that might contribute to misattribution of mental status changes to psychiatric illness when an elderly patient actually has a delirium (mental status changes due to a medical condition).\n\nMethods: Records of 900 elderly patients referred to a Veterans Affairs psychiatric inpatient unit and 413 to an inpatient psychiatric team at a public hospital from 2001 to 2007 were reviewed. Cases referred because of symptoms secondary to an unrecognized delirium underwent further analysis of preadmission assessments. Comparisons were made to elderly patients with delirium appropriately admitted to medical units.\n\nResults: Thirty (2.3%) of the patients referred to psychiatric units were found to have a physical disorder requiring medical intervention

within twelve hours. NVP-HSP990 in vivo Compared to 30 delirious patients admitted to medical units, those inappropriately referred to psychiatric units had significantly lower rates of adequate medical histories, physical examinations, cognitive assessments, and laboratory/radiological studies. Among patients with delirium referred to psychiatric units, 66.7% had a history of mental illness, versus 26.7% of comparable admissions to medical units (chi(2) (7) = 60.00, P < 0.001).\n\nConclusions: Our findings suggest that elderly patients with delirium admitted to psychiatric units are less likely to undergo complete diagnostic assessments than delirious elderly patients admitted to medical units. Symptoms of delirium appear more likely to be incorrectly attributed to psychiatric illness in patients with a history of mental illness than in patients without such a history. Possible explanations for these findings and suggestions for addressing these issues are offered.”
“To adapt to stresses encountered in stationary phase, Gram-negative bacteria utilize the alternative sigma factor RpoS.

90) and satisfactory SEM (SEM % <= 10%) reported by four high

90) and satisfactory SEM (SEM % <= 10%) reported by four high quality

studies. However the level of evidence for inter-rater reliability was limited and needs to be addressed by future research. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“The aged brain is prone to excessive levels of immune activity, not initiated by an acute response to an extrinsic agent. While dietary melatonin is reported to attenuate the extent of expression of proinflammatory genes, little is known about the extent to which these changes can be translated into altered levels of corresponding proteins. The baseline levels of the proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and Sotrastaurin nmr interleukin-1 alpha, were greater in older (similar to 29 months old) compared to younger (similar to 7 months old) mouse brains. Acute (3 h) exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappa B), but not inflammatory

cytokines in the brain. The serum level of TNF-alpha was increased after LPS injection, indicating a systemic immune response to the bacterial cell wall component. Dietary melatonin (40 ppm for 9.3 weeks) did not prevent LPS-induced changes in younger animals but caused an increased systemic TNF-alpha response in older mice. Melatonin did reduce markers of carbonyl formation in brain proteins of young animals and nitrosylative damage to peptide-bound amino acid residues, in the brains of older animals. Acute LPS challenge did not significantly affect these oxidative SHP099 Others inhibitor markers. Thus, despite lack of clear evidence of attenuation of the NF-kappa B-cytokine inflammatory trajectory within the CNS by melatonin, this agent did show a protective effect against free radical-initiated injury to amino acid residues within proteins. The results illustrate that previously reported changes in gene expression following melatonin Selleck IPI-145 treatment need not be closely paralleled by corresponding changes in protein content.”
“An 81-year-old female complaining of

severe back pain was admitted to hospital and diagnosed with acute type A aortic dissection with a thrombosed false lumen. Aggressive antihypertensive therapy was selected. On day 8, computed tomography showed pulmonary artery thrombus, and transthoracic echocardiography showed a 76 x 70 mm worm-like floating right heart thrombus. Thrombolytic therapy is reported to be the optimal treatment for patients with pulmonary embolism and floating right heart thrombus, but is contraindicated in acute aortic dissection. The patient underwent surgical thrombectomy, which revealed thrombus entrapped in the Chiari network. An inferior vena cava filter was placed. The patient recovered uneventfully and was discharged home after initiation of warfarin therapy.

Animals – Hair was collected from 12 dogs with hyperadrenocor

\n\nAnimals – Hair was collected from 12 dogs with hyperadrenocorticism and from 10 healthy control dogs.\n\nMethods – Immunoreactive

cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone concentrations were determined by enzyme immunoassay. High-performance liquid chromatography was performed to test the validity of the cortisol assay.\n\nResults – Levels of immunoreactive cortisol, cortisone and corticosterone were significantly higher in dogs with hyperadrenocorticism than in control dogs. The difference was most pronounced for the cortisol level.\n\nConclusions and clinical importance – The determination of cortisol in hair offers the advantage that sampling is easier and less invasive than taking blood, urine, faeces or saliva. Measuring cortisol in hair may represent a valuable tool for the diagnosis of hyperadrenocorticism in dogs.”
“Development and Entinostat does maintenance of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) are essential for an organism to survive and reproduce, and damage to the PNS

by disease or injury is often debilitating. Remarkably, the nerves of the PNS are capable of regenerating after trauma. However, full functional recovery after nerve injuries remains poor. Peripheral nerve regeneration has been studied extensively, with particular emphasis on elucidating the roles of Schwann cells and macrophages during degeneration and subsequent regeneration. In contrast, the roles Selleck Torin 2 of other essential nerve components, including perineurial glia, are poorly understood. Here, we use laser nerve transection and in vivo, time-lapse imaging in zebrafish to investigate the role and requirement of perineurial glia after nerve injury. We show that perineurial glia respond rapidly and dynamically to nerve transections by extending processes into injury sites and phagocytizing debris. Perineurial glia also bridge injury gaps before Schwann cells RG-7388 in vitro and axons, and we demonstrate that these bridges are essential

for axon regrowth. Additionally, we show that perineurial glia and macrophages spatially coordinate early debris clearance and that perineurial glia require Schwann cells for their attraction to injury sites. This work highlights the complex nature of cell-cell interactions after injury and introduces perineurial glia as integral players in the regenerative process.”
“Common variants of chromosome 9p21.3 associated with coronary disease have been established, but the association of 9p21.3 and cerebral infarction (CI) is not consistent. The aim of this study is to confirm the association of cerebral infarction and 9p21.3 in a Chinese Han population. This is a hospital-based case-control study, which involves 769 patients and 682 healthy controls. Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cerebral infarction in previous literatures were genotyped and analyzed. The association analyses were performed at both SNP and haplotype levels.

However, it remains unclear how macrophages are activated and int

However, it remains unclear how macrophages are activated and interact with VECs. Here we show that Ninjurin1 (nerve injury-induced protein; Ninj1) was temporally increased in macrophages during regression of HVS and these Ninj1-expressing macrophages closely interacted with hyaloid VECs. Systemic neutralization using an anti-Ninj1 antibody resulted in the delay of HVS regression in vivo. We also found that Ninj1 increased cell-cell

and cell-matrix adhesion of macrophages. Furthermore, Ninj1 stimulated the expression of Wnt7b in macrophages and the conditioned media from Ninj1-overexpressing macrophages (Ninj1-CM) decreased Ang1 and increased Ang2 in pericytes, which consequently switched hyaloid VEC fate from survival to death. Collectively, these findings suggest that macrophages express Ninj1 to increase the death signal through cell-cell interaction Screening Library cell line and raise the possibility that Ninj1 may act similarly in other developmental regression mediated by macrophages.”
“Evidence

of emerging Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies, documented in western Cambodia, underscores the continuing need to identify new antimalarial combinations. Given recent reports of the resurgence of chloroquine-sensitive P. falciparum parasites in Malawi, after the enforced and prolonged withdrawal of this drug, Metabolism inhibitor and indications of a possible synergistic interaction with the macrolide azithromycin, we sought to further characterize chloroquine-azithromycin combinations for their in vitro and in vivo antimalarial properties. In vitro 96-h susceptibility testing of chloroquine-azithromycin Lonafarnib in vivo combinations showed mostly additive interactions against freshly cultured P. falciparum field isolates obtained from Mali. Some evidence of synergy, however, was apparent at the fractional 90% inhibitory concentration level. Additional in vitro testing highlighted the resistance reversal properties of amlodipine for both chloroquine and quinine. In vivo experiments, using the Peters 4-day

suppressive test in a P. yoelii mouse model, revealed up to 99.9% suppression of parasitemia following treatment with chloroquine-azithromycin plus the R enantiomer of amlodipine. This enantiomer was chosen because it does not manifest the cardiac toxicities observed with the racemic mixture. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analyses in this rodent model and subsequent extrapolation to a 65-kg adult led to the estimation that 1.8 g daily of R-amlodipine would be required to achieve similar efficacy in humans, for whom this is likely an unsafe dose. While these data discount amlodipine as an additional partner for chloroquine-based combination therapy, our studies continue to support azithromycin as a safe and effective addition to antimalarial combination therapies.”
“Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a promising source for cell replacement therapies for neurological diseases.

It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the com

It was estimated that biochar addition at 3% could reduce the composting time by 20%. (C) 2015

Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Biodegradable polymers are compatible, permeable and nontoxic, thus they can provide a useful tool for drug delivery or tissue engineering. These polymers can form hydrogels, which are suitable vehicles for different types of materials e.g. drugs, bioactive molecules or cells. In the case of dentistry, photopolymerization is an obvious method to Bcl-2 inhibition obtain in situ useable devices which can provide a more efficient way of tailoring drug release. A hydrogel system was developed based on poly-gamma-glutamic acid that was modified with methacryloyl groups to achieve this purpose. The resulting new reactive structure was proved by NMR spectroscopy. The swelling ratio of this type of hydrogel

has been found remarkable, over 300 % after 24 h, and it can release 5 ng/mm(2) metronidazole. The prepared hydrogels were nontoxic as viability, cytotoxicity tests and cell morphology investigations proved it. These results render this model system an excellent candidate for use as an in situ curing local drug delivery device. The new photoactive system can be utilized in the treatment of periodontal diseases or raising the effectiveness of drugs used only in the minimal effective dose.”
“In-line monitoring tools are still required to understand and control animal cell processes, particularly in the case of vaccine production. Here, in situ near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) quantification of components in culture media was performed using microcarrier-based Vactosertib cultivations of adherent Vero cells. Because microcarriers were found to interfere with NIRS spectra acquisition, a suitable and innovative in situ calibration was developed for bioreactor cultures.

A reliable and accurate NIRS technique for the quantification of glucose and lactate was established, with a calibration standard error of 0.30 and 0.21 gl(-1), respectively. The robustness of this method was evaluated by performing NIRS calibration with operating conditions similar to those of industrial processes, including parameters such as microcarrier concentrations, cell seeding states and changes in analyte concentration due to BEZ235 feed and harvest strategies. Based on this calibration procedure, the predicted analyte concentrations in unknown samples was measured by NIRS analyses with an accuracy of 0.36 gl(-1) for glucose and 0.29 gl(-1) for lactate. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“Background: The plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) remains the gold standard for the detection of serologic immune responses to dengue virus (DENV). While the basic concept of the PRNT remains constant, this test has evolved in multiple laboratories, introducing variation in materials and methods.

3% procedures) Grades I and II include minor complications requi

3% procedures). Grades I and II include minor complications requiring no therapy or pharmacologic intervention only. Grades III and IV are major complications that require surgical intervention or life support. Grade V complications result

in patient death. Grades I, II, III, and IV complications comprised 4.9%, 63.9%, 21.1%, and 7.8% of all complications; overall mortality rate (grade V) was 2.2%. The most common complications were prolonged air leak (18.8%) and atrial fibrillation (18.2%) after pulmonary resection, and atrial fibrillation (11.5%) after esophagectomy-gastrectomy. Prolonged BKM120 cost air leak led to a major complication (13%), readmission (17%), or prolonged hospital stay (29%) to a greater selleck chemicals llc extent than atrial fibrillation (3%, 2%, and 7%, respectively).\n\nConclusions. This standardized classification system for identifying presence and severity of thoracic surgical complications is feasible, facilitates objective comparison, identifies burden of illness of individual complications, and provides an effective method for continuous surgical quality assessment.”
“As the usage of fluorescence microscopy as a tool to study biological systems continues to grow, so does the need for additional tools that permit the selective detection of

proteins of interest. Existing selective and well-characterized kinase inhibitors may be exploited to develop novel small molecule probes useful in imaging kinases by fluorescence microscopy.”
“The study

investigated effect of high influent nitrate concentration on poly-0-hydroxybutyrate, (PHB), storage in a sequencing batch reactor, (SBR), under anoxic conditions. Acetate was fed as pulse during anoxic phase, sustained SB525334 mw with external nitrate feeding. SBR operation involved three runs at steady state with COD/N ratios of 3.84, 2.93 and 1.54 gCOD/gN, where external nitrate concentrations gradually increased from 50 mg N/l to 114 mg N/l and 226 mg N/l, in 1st, 2nd and 3rd runs, respectively. In 1st run, acetate was fully converted. into PHB with the storage yield value of 0.57-0.59 gCOD/gCOD, calculated both in terms of PHB formation and NO(x) utilization, confirming storage was the sole substrate utilization mechanism. In the following runs, PHB formation was reduced and the storage yield based on PHB dropped down to 0.40 and 0.33 gCOD/gCOD with increasing influent nitrate concentrations, indicating that higher portions of acetate were diverted to simultaneous direct growth. The observations suggested that nitrite accumulation detected at low COD/N ratios was responsible for inhibition of PHB storage. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We studied the interplay between Ag decoration of a stepped Pt(355) surface and CO adsorption by in situ high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Molecular and pathologic studies suggest

Molecular and pathologic studies suggest this website that low-grade noninvasive and high-grade invasive urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) arise via distinct pathways. Low-grade noninvasive UCC represent the majority of tumors at presentation. A high proportion of patients with low-grade UCC develop recurrences but usually with no progression to invasive disease. At presentation, a majority of the bladder tumors (70%-80%) are low-grade noninvasive

(pTa). Several genetic changes may occur in bladder cancer, but activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes are the most common and most specific genetic abnormality in bladder cancer. Interestingly, these mutations are associated with bladder tumors of low stage and grade, which makes the FGFR3 mutation the first marker that can be used for diagnosis of noninvasive bladder tumors. Since the first report of FGFR3 involvement in bladder tumors, numerous studies have been conducted to understand its function and thereby confirm the oncogenic role of this receptor particularly in noninvasive groups. Efforts are on to exploit this receptor as a therapeutic target, which Pinometostat molecular weight holds much promise in the treatment of bladder cancer, particularly low-grade noninvasive tumors. Further studies need to explore the potential use of FGFR3 mutations in bladder cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and in surveillance of patients with bladder cancer. This review focuses on the role

of FGFR3 in bladder tumors in the backdrop of various studies published. (c) 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.”
“An efficient and practical synthesis of the novel anti-tumor compound 6,8-dithiobenzyl octanoic acid, CPI-613 (2), was developed and executed on a

practical scale. CPI-613 can be made in a single vessel from (+/-)-lipoic acid (1) via reductive opening of the disulfide ring followed Vorinostat by benzylation of the sulfhydryls with benzyl bromide. CPI-613 was isolated by simple crystallization in high yield and purity. The process is scaleable and has been demonstrated at up to 100 kg.”
“A review of pathological mechanisms that can explain the relationship between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) is necessary to improve the management of both conditions. Metabolic syndrome is a combination of obesity, hypertension, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, and dyslipidemia. All these have been examined in recent years in terms of their relationship to periodontitis. Reviewed data indicate an association between some of them (body mass index, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C], triglycerides, high blood pressure, among others) and periodontitis. Oxidative stress may act as a potential common link to explain relationships between each component of metabolic syndrome and periodontitis. Both conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, with a pro-inflammatory state likely influencing each other bidirectionally.

This effect correlated with a significant downregulation of strom

This effect correlated with a significant downregulation of stromal interacting molecule (STIM) and Orai, proposed molecular correlates for SOCE in many cell types. DAPT price The data from this study present a novel pathway for the regulation of Ca2+ signaling and PASMC proliferation involving activation of Akt in response to upregulated expression of PDGF. Targeting this pathway may lead to the development of a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension.”
“The Committee for the International System

for Human Cytogenetic Nomenclature (ISCN) has recently met and published a revised version, ISCN 2009. Multiple changes in nomenclature guidelines are presented in that updated version. This review will highlight changes to the idiograms and specific changes in respective chapters of the 2009 version compared with the previous version of the ISCN published in 2005. These highlights are meant as a guide for the cytogeneticist to assist in the transition in the use of this updated nomenclature for describing cytogenetic and molecular cytogenetic findings in both clinical and research reports. Copyright (C) 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Ionotropic

glutamate receptors, especially the a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic see more acid (AMPA) receptor subtype, undergo dynamic trafficking between the surface membrane and intracellular organelles. This trafficking activity determines the efficacy and strength of excitatory synapses and is subject to modulation by changing synaptic inputs. Given the possibility that glutamate receptors in the central nervous system might be a sensitive target of anesthetic agents, this study investigated the possible impact of anesthesia on trafficking and subcellular expression of AMPA receptors in adult mouse brain neurons

in vivo. We found that anesthesia induced by a systemic injection of pentobarbital did not alter total protein levels of IWR-1-endo molecular weight three AMPA receptor subunits (GluR13) in cortical neurons. However, an anesthetic dose of pentobarbital reduced GluR1 and GluR3 proteins in the surface pool and elevated these proteins in the intracellular pool of cortical neurons. The similar redistribution of GluR1/3 was observed in mouse striatal neurons. Pentobarbital did not significantly alter GluR2 expression in the two pools. Chloral hydrate at an anesthetic dose also reduced surface GluR1/3 expression and increased intracellular levels of these proteins. The effect of pentobarbital on subcellular distribution of AMPA receptors was reversible. Altered subcellular distribution of GluR1/3 returned to normal levels after the anesthesia subsided. These data indicate that anesthesia induced by pentobarbital and chloral hydrate can alter AMPA receptor trafficking in both cortical and striatal neurons. This alteration is characterized by the concurrent loss and addition of GluR1/3 subunits in the respective surface and intracellular pools.

Neutral SMase (N-SMase) isoforms, which catalyze hydrolysis of sp

Neutral SMase (N-SMase) isoforms, which catalyze hydrolysis of sphingomyelin (SM) SB525334 concentration to ceramide and phosphocholine, have been found in the mitochondria of yeast and zebrafish, yet their existence in mammalian mitochondria remains unknown. Here, we have identified and cloned a cDNA based on nSMase homologous sequences. This cDNA encodes a novel protein of 483 amino acids that displays significant homology to nSMase2 and possesses the same catalytic core residues as members of the extended N-SMase family. A transiently expressed V5-tagged protein co-localized with both mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum markers in MCF-7 and HEK293 cells; accordingly, the enzyme

is referred to as mitochondria-associated nSMase (MA-nSMase). MA-nSMase was highly expressed in testis, pancreas, epididymis, and brain. MA-nSMase had an absolute requirement for cations such as Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) and activation by the anionic Compound C clinical trial phospholipids, especially phosphatidylserine and the mitochondrial cardiolipin. Importantly, overexpression of MA-nSMase in HEK293 cells significantly increased in vitro N-SMase activity and also modulated

the levels of SM and ceramide, indicating that the identified cDNA encodes a functional SMase. Thus, these studies identify and characterize, for the first time, a mammalian MA-nSMase. The characterization of MA-nSMase described GSK690693 mouse here will contribute to our understanding of pathways regulated by sphingolipid metabolites, particularly with reference to the mitochondria and associated organelles.”
“In

a previous work we have shown that sinusoidal whole-body rotations producing continuous vestibular stimulation, affected the timing of motor responses as assessed with a paced finger tapping (PFT) task (Binetti et al. (2010). Neuropsychologia, 48(6), 1842-1852). Here, in two new psychophysical experiments, one purely perceptual and one with both sensory and motor components, we explored the relationship between body motion/vestibular stimulation and perceived timing of acoustic events. In experiment 1, participants were required to discriminate sequences of acoustic tones endowed with different degrees of acceleration or deceleration. In this experiment we found that a tone sequence presented during acceleratory whole-body rotations required a progressive increase in rate in order to be considered temporally regular, consistent with the idea of an increase in “clock” frequency and of an overestimation of time. In experiment 2 participants produced self-paced taps, which entailed an acoustic feedback. We found that tapping frequency in this task was affected by periodic motion by means of anticipatory and congruent (in-phase) fluctuations irrespective of the self-generated sensory feedback.

I review

a web of animal and human data that tightens the

I review

a web of animal and human data that tightens the noose around the hypothesis that copper toxicity is causing the epidemic of Alzheimer’s disease and loss of cognition in our aging population.”
“The HLA-G (human leukocyte antigen-G) molecule plays a pivotal role in immune tolerance by inhibiting different cell subsets involved in both innate and adaptive immunity. Besides its primary function in maintaining the maternal-fetal tolerance, HLA-G has been involved in a wide range of pathological conditions where it can be either favorable or detrimental to the patient, depending on the nature of the pathology. Although several studies have demonstrated the utmost importance of the 30 untranslated region (3′UTR) in the HLA-G expression profile, limited data exist on the sequence variability of this gene Navitoclax research buy region in human populations. In this study, we characterized the genetic diversity and haplotype structure of the HLA-G 3′UTR by resequencing 444 individuals HM781-36B cost from three sub-Saharan African populations and retrieving data from the 1000 Genomes project and the literature. A total of

1936 individuals representing 21 worldwide populations were combined and jointly analyzed. Our data revealed a high level of nucleotide diversity, an excess of intermediate frequency variants and an extremely low population differentiation, strongly supporting a history of balancing selection at this locus. The 14-bp insertion/deletion polymorphism was further pointed out as the likely target of selection, emphasizing its potential role in the post-transcriptional regulation of HLA-G expression.”
“Aim of the study: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative radiotherapy in prostate cancer patients with unfavorable prognostic factors.\n\nMaterial and

methods: In the years 2002-2008, 121 consecutive prostate Cilengitide cancer patients underwent radical prostatectomy and postoperative radiotherapy. The median dose was 64 Gy (range 60-72 Gy). Biochemical and clinical progression free survival were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to analyze clinicopathological varibales associated with treatment failure.\n\nResults: The median follow-up was 27 months. Three-year bPFS was 72%. On univariate analysis it was influenced by extracapsular tumor extension (60% vs. 75%, p = 0.0232), seminal vesicles invasion (52% vs. 85%, p = 0.00041), Gleason score >= 7 (65% vs. 86%, p = 0.044) and the use of hormonal therapy (50% vs. 80%, p = 0.0058). On multivariate analysis bPFS was associated with: TNM stage (HR = 2.6), total irradiation dose (HR = 0.82) and the maximum pretreatment level of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) (HR = 0.95). Three-year cPFS was 84%. On univariate analysis it was influenced by preoperative PSA level > 10 ng/ml (75% vs. 90%, p = 0.04), vascular nerve bundles involvement (63% vs. 88%, p = 0.0031), adjacent organs infiltration (50% vs. 85%, p = 0.