In this study, we evaluated the clinical profile in Southern Chinese postmenopausal women with vertebral fracture and examined for clinical risk factors and possible ethnic difference associated
with vertebral fracture in this population. Methods Study population This is a part of the Hong Kong Osteoporosis Study (HKOS), in which 2,178 community-based postmenopausal women (defined see more as at least 1 year has passed their last menstrual cycle) who were ≥45 years of age were recruited from health fairs held in various districts in Hong Kong for identification of genetic and environmental risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures [20, 21]. Participants who received anti-osteoporosis treatment and/or postmenopausal hormonal replacement therapy were excluded from analysis. For the present study, 1,372 (63%) subjects with lateral thoraco-lumbar spine selleck screening library radiographs available for evaluation of vertebral height at the first visit were included in the analysis. The subjects with spine radiographs had similar clinical characteristics with those who did not have radiographs at baseline (data not shown). The study protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong and Hospital Authority Hong Kong West Clustered Hospitals, and informed consent was obtained from all participants according to the Declaration of Helsinki. Anthropometrical and other measurements Baseline demographic data and
clinical risk factors for osteoporosis such as anthropometric measurements, find more socioeconomic status, education level, low-trauma fracture history after the age of 45 years (both personal and family), history of fall, medical history (including current medication, prior prescription of glucocorticoid and/or hormonal therapy, history of thyroid or parathyroid disease, and gastric or intestinal surgery), and reproductive history were obtained at first visit. Additionally, information Meloxicam on lifestyle habits including smoking and alcohol consumption were also obtained at baseline. Dietary intake of calcium and isoflavone was determined using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire. These data were collected
from interviews conducted by a trained research assistant using a structured questionnaire. BMD measurements Bone mineral density (BMD) of the L1 to L4 lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip were determined using dual-energy X-ray absortiometry (QDR-4500/DELPHI-W, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA) and by licensed technicians who were accredited by the International Society for Clinical Densitometry. The in vivo precision of the machine in postmenopausal women is 1.2%, 1.5%, and 1.8% at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and total hip, respectively. The peak young mean ± SD BMD value used to calculate T-scores for spine, femoral neck, and total hip, obtained from the local Southern Chinese normative database , are 1.02 ± 0.11, 0.77 ± 0.09, and 0.86 ± 0.10 g/cm2, respectively.