Sheets of mesothelial cells in trans-abdominal aspirations, or sampling of adjacent viscera (kidney, adrenal cortex and lung, particularly in right sided aspirates need to be recognized as such and not misinterpreted. Normal and reactive hepatocytes may also have quite prominent nucleoli, but this should not be a uniform feature. Regenerative hepatocytes in cirrhotic livers may also show various degrees of dysplastic change. Benign bile ductal epithelial sheets may be diagnosed as metastatic adenocarcinoma if attention is not paid to the cohesive, uniform
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical honeycomb appearance of the cells and two-dimensional sheets, rather than a haphazard three-dimensional grouping of tumor cells. Malignant melanoma may resemble hepatocellular carcinoma. Clear cell HCC resembles metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma. Summary Cytology of the liver is a safe and sensitive technique for the diagnosis of
Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical mass forming lesions of the liver. Adequate, well preserved and prepared cytologic sampling is essential. The vast majority of primary or metastatic neoplasms can be identified Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical morphologically and particularly with the help of confirmatory ancillary studies. Occasionally however well differentiated primary neoplasms (both benign and malignant) and rare lesions may be difficult to diagnose. Complete history, clinical, serologic and radiologic findings are essential. Thorough sampling, adequate well preserved and well prepared specimens (preferably
in conjunction with cell blocks and even Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical core biopsy) and expert interpretation are necessary for optimal results. The new trends in personalized molecular targeted therapy require better characterization and prediction of tumor behavior. Cytologic sampling is ideally suited for the procurement of tumor for Inhibitors,research,lifescience,medical these molecular studies. Acknowledgements Disclosure: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
A 74-year-old woman with a past medical history notable only for resolved http://www.selleckchem.com/products/XL184.html pneumonia one month prior, presented with two weeks of nausea, vomiting and epigastric pain radiating to her back. Review of systems was positive for generalized weakness and a 14-pound weight loss over the previous three weeks. She denied Cilengitide alcohol intake or recent trauma. She was evaluated in Axitinib VEGFR inhibitor urgent care and diagnosed with acute pancreatitis. After failed outpatient management, she was admitted due to an inability to maintain adequate oral intake. Vital signs included temperature 37 °C, blood pressure 169/71 mmHg, pulse 110 beats/min, respiratory rate 18 breaths/min, and oxygen saturation 96% on room air. Physical examination was remarkable for epigastric tenderness without guarding or palpable abdominal mass. Initial laboratory studies demonstrated an elevated lipase at >3,000 U/L (reference, 73-393 U/L), amylase 268 U/L (reference, 30-110 U/L), and white blood count (WBC) 11.8×109 /L. Her liver enzymes were normal, as was her triglyceride level at 133 mg/dL.