Zoospores generally are short-live and their survival is subject

Zoospores generally are short-live and their survival is subject to environmental

stresses. Majority of zoospores survive for less than 24 h [6–8]. Zoospore survival of individual species in aquatic environments depends upon water pH [7, 9], electrical conductivity (EC) [6], and CO2[10, 11]. Dissolved oxygen is another important water quality parameter. Dissolved oxygen concentration in ACP-196 mouse agricultural reservoirs varies among water sources and fluctuates seasonally as well as diurnally within the same sources due to activities of phytoplankton, change of temperature and atmosphere pressure [12]. Dissolved oxygen concentration in lakes, streams, and ponds that receive runoff from Dabrafenib concentration nurseries was 9.0, 7.0 and 12.0 mg L-1, respectively [13]. Dissolved oxygen concentrations in runoff water containment basin that was also an irrigation reservoir varied from 0.3 to 26.5 mg L-1 over time

[13]. These oxygen concentrations are much lower than the atmospheric oxygen level of 21% or 276 mg L-1 based on the air density of 1.2 g m-3 with 23.2% of oxygen at the sea level (http://​www.​en.​wikipedia.​org/​wiki/​Atmosphere_​of_​Earth). Dissolved oxygen is known to affect the survival of fish and other aquatic organisms including algae [14]. Whether and how dissolved oxygen may affect zoospore survival of Phytophthora species in irrigation reservoirs is not known. Previous studies in relation to oxygen have focused primarily on other propagules in terrestrial rather than zoospores in aquatic environments. Species of Phytophthora grew well in oxygen concentrations from 0.04% to 21% (or 0.5–276 mg L-1) in soil or on agar media [15, 16]. Mycelia can grow under a wide range of oxygen conditions as long as its concentration was below 1.6% (or 21 mg L-1) [15, 17]. However, Phytophthora species produce BMS345541 in vivo sporangia in water films under a narrow range of dissolved oxygen concentrations. For instance, sporangium production was prolific at an oxygen

level of 5% (or ≥ 65 mg L-1) but production nil to few at 1% (or 13 mg L-1) [18]. Few oospores were produced at atmospheric oxygen levels of 276 mg L-1 or higher while numerous were produced at much lower levels at 13 and 65 mg L-1[16, 17, 19]. Disease development delayed in plants inoculated with P. cinnamomi at an oxygen range of 0.9–2.3 mg L-1 ADAMTS5 in aeroponic and hydroponic systems [20, 21]. These studies demonstrate that different propagules may require different levels of oxygen for production, growth and survival. Here, we report the effects of elevated and low concentrations of dissolved oxygen in a simulated aquatic system on zoospore survival for several Phytophthora species. The aim of this study was to develop a better understanding of aquatic ecology of Phytophthora species, establishing a base for devising sustainable mitigation strategies for these pathogens in irrigation water.

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