The retina comprises elongated retinula cells, which are divided into three regions: a distal rhabdomal region, a middle cytoplasmic region, and a proximal axonal region. In the distal rhabdomal region, most of the rhabdoms are formed by rhabdomeres of two adjacent retinula cells; some are formed by three or four retinula cells. The middle cytoplasmic region comprises the retinula cell segments with nuclei but free of rhabdom. Pigment granules are present among the retinula cells.
In the proximal axonal region all retinula cells transform to axons, which synapse with the dendrites of second-order neurons at the base of the ocelli. The relationships among Panorpodidae, Panorpidae and Bittacidae are discussed based on ocellar structure. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We have constructed a computational platform suitable for examining emergence of shape Epigenetic Reader Do inhibitor Pinometostat homeostasis in simple three-dimensional cellular systems. An embryo phenotype results from a developmental process starting with a single cell and its genome. When coupled to an evolutionary search, this platform can evolve embryos with particular stable shapes and high capacity for self-repair, even though repair is not genetically encoded or part of the fitness criteria. With respect to the genome, embryo shape and self-repair are emergent properties that arise from
complex interactions among cells and cellular components via signaling and gene regulatory networks, during development or during repair. This report analyzes
these networks and the underlying mechanisms that control embryo growth, organization, stability, and robustness to injury.”
“The life extension of a component in service is of great importance in many engineering applications and it relies on the possibility of monitoring the material degradation during in-service loading. In this view, non-destructive testing is needed in order to be able to evaluate the material properties while keeping the component in service.\n\nThe present work focuses on a miniature mechanical test named small punch PP2 test, which has been employed on virgin and aged 1CrMoV steel in order to characterise its mechanical behaviour. A thorough experimental analysis has been carried out using classical and miniature mechanical tests and the results have been compared in order to evaluate the feasibility of the small punch test to the characterisation of an aged steel.\n\nA numerical framework based on finite element simulations is also presented to support the findings of the experimental tests. Starting from the simulation of a typical load-displacement curve given by the small punch test, the elastic-plastic parameters have been identified and applied in the simulation of the tensile tests.