Peripheral quantitative computed tomography Peripheral QCT measurements of the non-dominant radius
were made in men recruited to the Manchester and Leuven centres using XCT-2000 scanners (Stratec, Pforzheim, Germany). At the distal (4%) site total and trabecular BMD (mg/cm3) and bone cross-sectional area (mm2) were measured (voxel size, 0.4 mm); the slice location at the 4% and 50% site was more distal in Leuven compared with Manchester; the reference line was placed at the distal Nec-1s mw border of the radial endplate in Leuven, in Manchester the line is placed to bisect the lateral border of the endplate these differences result in a scan site difference approximately 1–2 mm between centers. At the diaphysis (50% MGCD0103 clinical trial site, voxel size 0.6 mm), cortical BMD click here (mg/cm3), cortical BMC (mg/mm), total, cortical and medullary areas (mm2), cortical thickness (mm), stress strain index (SSI, mm3) and muscle cross-sectional area, as a proxy for muscle strength (CSMA, mm2), were measured. SSI provides a measure of a bone’s torsional strength [21, 22]. A detailed methodology for these measurements has been described previously . For cross-calibration between Leuven and Manchester the European Forearm Phantom (EFP) was measured ; 10 repeat
measurements were taken in slices 1–4. There were no differences greater than precision error for trabecular, total and cortical BMD, BMC or cortical area. Therefore no cross-calibration was performed
between the two centres. These data and decisions were reviewed by Dr Klaus Engelke a CT expert from University of Erlangen, Germany and the scanner manufacturer Stratec Medizintechnik GmbH, Profzheim, Germany (Dr. Johannes Willnecker—personal communication). The short term precision of two repeat radius measurements with repositioning in adults were: Manchester (n = 22) Leuven (n = 40) trabecular BMD 1.27%, 1.42%; total BMD 2.1%, 1.3%; cortical BMD 0.77%, 0.71%; cortical area 2.4%, 1.3%; muscle area 3.7%, 1.1%. Manufacturer’s standard quality assurance procedures were followed in both Amylase centres. Sex hormone measurement A single-fasting morning (before 10.00 h) venous blood sample was obtained from all subjects. Serum was separated immediately after phlebotomy and stored at −80°C until assay at the end of the baseline study. Measurement of T and E2 were carried out by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as described in Labrie et al. [25, 26]. The lower limit of T quantitation was 0.17 nmol/L and E2 was 7.34 pmol/L. The coefficients of variation of T measurements were 2.9% within runs and 3.4% between runs, and for E2, were 3.5% within runs and 3.7% between runs. SHBG was measured by the Modular E170 platform electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) as previously described .