After additional solvent development, the contrast curve (Figure 

After additional solvent development, the contrast curve (Figure 1b) shows a mixed behavior, rather than a simple positive or negative tone behavior. At very low exposure doses, since the unexposed LCZ696 mw resist is soluble in pentyl acetate developer whereas electron beam exposure decomposed the resist to generate less soluble decomposition product, the resist exhibited a negative tone. At higher doses, on the one hand, the resist was increasingly decomposed and vaporized with increasing doses, which led to the tendency of positive tone; on the other hand, as the degree of decomposition increased, the decomposition product became less soluble

in the solvent developer, resulting in the tendency of negative tone after solvent development. As a consequence of those two competing trends, there exists a turning point exposure dose (approximately 1,200 μC/cm2) that gave a maximum remaining thickness. Such an exposure behavior can lead to complex structure as shown in Figure 2b, which is due to proximity exposure at the surrounding area beyond the directly exposed area. In fact, such kind of mixed exposure property is well known for a long time for PMMA that displays a positive tone at low doses and becomes a negative tone at approximately 10 times higher doses [21], which was also employed to

generate complex structures [22]. Though less known, another popular resist ZEP-520A actually also exhibits a mixed tone behavior just like PMMA [23]. However, unlike PMMA and ZEP for which the negative tone behavior JNK-IN-8 manufacturer appears only after roughly 10 times higher doses, for nitrocellulose, the negative tone behavior proceeds the positive tone, and the

dose ranges for the two tones have a large overlap and thus they are not clearly separated. E-beam working distance optimization using nitrocellulose resist Figure 3a illustrates the pattern design within the 1 mm × 1 mm writing field that consists of five identical wheel-structure array at the center and four corners, respectively, with the inset showing the wheel-structure array having exponentially increasing line doses from the upper left to the lower right wheel. A broad range of exposure dose is critical because Protein tyrosine phosphatase a relatively low dose is needed to reveal the high resolution capability when the beam is well focused, yet a high dose is essential to self-develop the resist to a certain visible depth when the beam is seriously enlarged. The wheel design is advantageous as it contains lines along various directions, which ensures that some lines (those roughly along the beam spot CH5424802 concentration elongation direction when there is severe astigmatism) would be adequately self-developed to become visible under SEM. Figure 3 CAD pattern design and structures exposed in nitrocellulose. (a) The CAD pattern design consisting of five identical wheel array structures (see right side for zoom-in view) at the 1 mm × 1 mm writing field center and four corners.

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