This model is used to analyze the given photonic structures in detail. We show that with a real photonic structure the loss cone losses can be reduced by”
“Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major public health concern, accounting for 3 million deaths annually, 90% of which occur in low- and middle-income FHPI datasheet countries. Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as a contributory factor in the aetiology of COPD is under debate, with most epidemiologic evidence suggesting a positive
association. Objectives: To compile a systematic review of evidence for an association between PTB and the development of chronic airflow obstruction (CAO). Methods: We performed a systematic review of original English-language, peer-reviewed literature using the PubMed/MEDLINE database. CAO was defined by spirometry
[FEV1:FVC ratio <0.70 or <LLN (lower limit of normal) for age]. Results: Nineteen studies (1 case series, 3 case-control studies, 4 cohort studies, 8 single-centre cross-sectional studies and 3 multi-centre cross-sectional studies) met the eligibility criteria. All but 2 reported a positive association between selleck screening library PTB and CAO. Three of 4 large population-based surveys (n = 4,291-8,066) confirmed a significant association between PTB and CAO (OR 1.37 – 2.94). A formal meta-analysis was not possible owing to marked heterogeneity between studies. Conclusions: This systematic review confirms evidence for a positive association between a past history of tuberculosis and the presence of CAO. The association is independent of cigarette smoking. Causality is likely but cannot be assumed. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel”
“Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) and its ancillary protein CD147 facilitate efflux of lactate from the muscle. Expression
of MCT-1 and CD147 were studied with immunohistochemistry in type I, IIA, IIAB and IIB fibres of equine Belinostat gluteal muscle. Staining intensity of MCT1 in the cytoplasm as well as in the membranes of fibre types decreased in the order I = IIA > IIAB > IIB and correlated with the oxidative capacity. Capillaries were pronounced in the MCT1 staining. CD147 antibody stained plasma membranes of all fibre types evenly, whereas the staining in the cytoplasm followed that of MCT1. In the middle gluteal muscle the expression of MCT1 follows the oxidative capacity of muscle fibres, but the expression of CD147 in sarcolemma does not vary among fibre types. The use of horse specific MCT1 and CD147 antibodies can in future studies help to evaluate lactate efflux from different muscle fibre types. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
“We interpret the measured sensitivity difference of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) used as dielectric sensors of ammonia gas traces in terms of adsorption sites and effective coverages.