These findings add

to a growing body of work suggesting t

These findings add

to a growing body of work suggesting that FGF2 may be a novel pharmacological enhancer of exposure therapy for humans with anxiety disorders.”
“The metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist LY379268 ([-]-2-oxa-4-aminobicyclo [3.1.0] hexane-4,6-dicarboxylate) attenuates both nicotine self-administration and cue-induced nicotine seeking in rats. In this study, the effects of LY379268 (1 mg/kg) or saline pretreatment on nicotine-induced increases in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell dopamine were evaluated using in vivo microdialysis under different experimental conditions: selleck screening library (i) nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base) was experimenter-administered subcutaneously to nicotine-naive rats; (ii) nicotine was experimenter-administered either subcutaneously (0.4 mg/kg) or by a single experimenter-administered infusion (0.06 mg/kg, base) in rats with a history of nicotine self-administration (nicotine experienced) in the absence of a nicotine-associated context (ie, context and cues associated with nicotine self-administration); (iii) nicotine (0.06 mg/kg) was self-administered or experimenter-administered

in nicotine-experienced rats in the presence of a PF 2341066 nicotine-associated context. In saline-pretreated nicotine-naive and nicotine-experienced rats, nicotine increased NAcc shell dopamine regardless of the context used for testing. Interestingly, LY379268 pretreatment blocked nicotine-induced increases in NAcc shell dopamine in nicotine-experienced rats only when tested in the selleck kinase inhibitor presence of a nicotine-associated context. LY379268 did not block nicotine-induced increases in NAcc shell dopamine in nicotine-naive

or -experienced rats tested in the absence of a nicotine-associated context. These intriguing findings suggest that activation of mGlu2/3 receptors negatively modulates the combined effects of nicotine and nicotine-associated contexts/cues on NAcc dopamine. Thus, these data highlight a critical role for mGlu2/3 receptors in context/cue-induced drug-seeking behavior and suggest a neurochemical mechanism by which mGlu2/3 receptor agonists may promote smoking cessation by preventing relapse induced by the combination of nicotine and nicotine-associated contexts and cues. Neuropsychopharmacology (2011) 36, 2111-2124; doi: 10.1038/npp.2011.103; published online 8 June 2011″
“Objectives: Preference for arterial inflow during surgery for type A acute aortic dissection remains controversial. Antegrade central perfusion prevents malperfusion and retrograde embolism, and the ascending aorta provides arterial access for rapid establishment of systemic perfusion, especially if there is hemodynamic instability. It has not been used routinely, however, because of the disruption caused to the aorta.

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