The process affecting both enamel and bone tissue may result from

The process affecting both enamel and bone tissue may result from either an earlier demineralization or inadequate bone growth, i.e., deterioration of microstructure. Genetic predisposition

for tooth wear has not been yet described in the literature. Possible underlying mechanisms of the two conditions may include disturbances in some trace elements leading, at least partly, to defective this website mineral and/or matrix composition in teeth and bones. Evidence supporting this view is available in animal studies reporting negative effect of low dietary intake of copper or its deficiency on bone matrix during growth, producing reduced bone strength and, thereby, the clinically apparent osteoporosis [49, 50]. Chronic exposure of growing rats to marginally low copper has been demonstrated to produce impaired mechanical strength, which predisposed the rats to bone fragility, independently GDC0449 of calcium/phosphate status. The explanation of this

pathway focused on deteriorations in the collagen component of bone tissue attributable to defected intermolecular cross-linking which is essentially dependent on lysyl oxidase [51]. Others reported that deficiency of trace elements, including copper as the cofactor of this enzyme, may also play significant role in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced reduction in bone mineral content Liothyronine Sodium in rats [52]. Absence of HDAC inhibitor copper-dependent lysil oxidase in humans has been clearly described as molecular cause of defective bone collagen in Menkes disease [36, 53]. Furthermore, results of animal studies have

shown copper deficits in teeth and mandible being linked to experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis in the whole skeleton [54]. These findings, although not directly relating to humans, suggest an important role of copper deficit in the impairment of mineralized tissues and, therefore, could support our hypothesis. Lichtenegger et al. reported an interesting constellation of biominerals in living organisms demonstrating high abrasion resistance, stiffness, and hardness of the jaws of Glycera dibranchiata due to the content and specific distribution of copper [55]. The investigators proved that copper-based biomineral atacamite formed in polycrystalline fibers was the key component enhancing an extraordinary resistance to abrasion despite generally sparse mineralization. There are limited published data on the significance of trace elements in postmenopausal osteoporosis whereas none of the reports focused on bone status in younger population. Most of previous clinical studies provide evidence of beneficial role of copper and zinc in improvement of bone density and quality in both osteoporotic and healthy individuals, particularly found in cancellous bone, i.e., lumbar spine vertebrae [56–58].

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