Susana Marta Isay Saad and Flávia Carolina Alonso Buriti for thei

Susana Marta Isay Saad and Flávia Carolina Alonso Buriti for their collaboration in ITF analysis, Ms. Tatiana Garofalo Quintal and Maura Sayuri de Andrade for technical assistance, Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (Research Project 2006/01735-0) for supporting

the research and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for the fellowships awarded to Alexandre R. Lobo and Maria Lucia Cocato. This study was also supported by Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES). We also wish to thank Álvaro Augusto Feitosa Pereira for reviewing the manuscript. “
“The carotenoids belong to one of the most important groups of natural pigments due to their high occurrence structural diversity TSA HDAC and their diverse functions. The basic chemical structure of the carotenoids consists of tetraterpenoids connected by opposite units at the centre of the molecule with

a polyenic chain ranging from 3 to 15 conjugated double bonds. This structure is susceptible to a number of different modifications (cyclisation, migration of the double bonds and the addition of oxygenated functions, amongst others) and generates a great diversity of structures (Britton, 1995). Autophagy inhibitor chemical structure These peculiar structural characteristics allow carotenoids to have a variety of different biological functions and chemical behaviours. In addition, due to the highly unsaturated polyenic chain, carotenoids are likely to suffer degradation reactions such as oxidation and hydrolysis, which modify their biological actions (Rodriguez & Rodriguez-Amaya, 2007). The oxidation of carotenoids is a complex process due to the formation of trace quantities of several compounds with a low

molecular weight. Ozone is an antimicrobial agent with several applications in the food industry, all since its high oxidation power and penetrability increases the microbiological security of these products. In addition, ozone does not leave behind any toxic residues unlike other types of sanitisation agents (Greene, Few, & Serafini, 1993). However, ozone can also react with the organic matter present in foods, especially those rich in unsaturated compounds, such as carotenoid pigments, through a well known cycloaddition reaction which results in carbonyl compounds (CC) and Criegee’s biradicals (Aschmann et al., 2002 and Nunes et al., 2005). These highly energetic biradicals then undergo fragmentation and stabilisation processes, giving rise to more stable species such as carboxylic acids. Despite the nutritional and biological functions of carotenoids, studies have demonstrated the deleterious effects of several of the oxidation products of these pigments. Aldehydes and epoxides, for example, may inhibit the respiration of mitochondrial isolates of rat livers (Siems et al.

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