“Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-borne betaretr

“Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV) is a milk-borne betaretrovirus that has developed strategies to exploit and subvert the host immune system. Here, we show in a natural model of MMTV infection that the virus causes early and progressive increases in superantigen (SAg)-specific Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells (T(reg)) in Peyer’s patches (PP). These increases were shown

to be dependent on the presence of dendritic cells. CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from the PP of infected mice preferentially suppress the proliferative response of T cells to SAg-expressing antigen-presenting selleck compound cells ex vivo. We investigated the influence of the depletion of CD25(+) cells at different stages of the infection. When CD25(+) cells were depleted before MMTV infection, an increase in the number of PP SAg-cognate Foxp3(-) T cells was found at day 6 of infection. PLX4032 Since the SAg response is associated with viral amplification, the possibility exists that T(reg) cells attenuate the increase in viral load at the beginning of the infection. In contrast, depletion of CD25(+) cells once the initial SAg response has developed caused a lower viral load, suggesting

that at later stages T(reg) cells may favor viral persistence. Thus, our results indicated that T(reg) cells play an important and complex role during MMTV infection.”
“The glutamatergic synapse in specific brain regions has been shown to be a site for convergence of stress and addictive substances. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), a nucleus that relays between higher order processing centers and classical reward and stress pathways, receives dense noradrenergic inputs that are known to influence behavioral paradigms of both anxiety and stress-induced relapse to drug seeking. alpha(1)-Adrenergic receptors (alpha(1)-ARs) within this region have been implicated in modulation of the HPA axis and anxiety responses. We found that application of an alpha(1)-AR

agonist produced a long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory transmission in an acute mouse BNST slice preparation. This effect was mimicked by a 20 min, but not a 10 min, application of 100 mu M norepinephrine (NE) in a prazosin-sensitive manner. This alpha(1)-AR LTD was independent of N-methyl-D-aspartate Oligomycin A receptor (NMDAR) function unlike previously described alpha(1)-AR LTD in the hippocampus and visual cortex; however, it was dependent on the activation of L-type voltage gated calcium channels (VGCCs). In addition, alpha(1)-AR LTD was induced independently of the activation of mGluR5 which can also induce LTD in this region. Furthermore, alpha(1)-AR LTD was intact in mice receiving an intraperitoneal injection of cocaine but was disrupted in alpha(2a)-AR and NE transporter (NET) knockout ( KO) mice. Thus a loss of this plasticity at glutamatergic synapses in BNST could contribute to affective behavioral phenotypes of these mice.”
“Bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) is an important component of the bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) in cattle.

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