Moreover, this unmasking of stimulus-driven control crucially depends on the intrahemispheric balance between top-down and bottom-up cortical areas. This result suggests that although in normal behavior high-level features might exert a strong influence, low-level features do contribute to guide visual selection during the exploration of complex natural stimuli. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.”
of the renoprotective antiaging gene Klotho is decreased in uremia. Recent selleck inhibitor studies suggest that Klotho may be a tumor suppressor, and its expression may be repressed by DNA hypermethylation in cancer cells. Here we investigated the effects and possible mechanisms by which Klotho expression is regulated during uremia in uninephrectomized B-6 mice given the uremic toxins learn more indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate. Cultured human renal tubular HK2 cells treated with these toxins were used as an in vitro model. Injections of indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate increased their serum concentrations, kidney fibrosis, CpG hypermethylation of the Klotho gene, and decreased Klotho expression in renal tubules of
these mice. The expression of DNA methyltransferases 1, 3a, and 3b isoforms in HK2 cells treated with indoxyl sulfate or p-cresyl sulfate was significantly increased. Specific inhibition of DNA methyltransferase isoform 1 by 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine caused demethylation of the Klotho gene and increased Klotho expression in vitro. Thus, inhibition of Klotho gene expression by uremic toxins correlates with gene hypermethylation, suggesting that epigenetic modification of specific genes by uremic toxins may be an important pathological mechanism of disease. Kidney International (2012) 81, 640-650; doi:10.1038/ki.2011.445; published online 11 January 2012″
“Aim: To compare the diabetes self-care profile of non-Irish-national patients i.e. immigrant patients (IM) and Irish patients (IR) attending a hospital diabetes clinic and to evaluate differences in health literacy between SPTLC1 the two cohorts.
We studied the differences in diabetes self-management between 52 randomly selected non-Irish-national patients with type 2 diabetes and 48 randomly selected Irish/Caucasian patients. Rapid Estimate of Adult Literacy in Medicine (REALM) was used to assess health literacy.
Results: IM had poorer glycemic control than IR (HbA1c 8.0 +/- 1.9 vs. 6.9 +/- 1.4%, P < 0.005). A significant proportion of IM forget to monitor their daily blood glucose (42.1% vs. 12.5%, P < 0.05). Family support is more important amongst IM in performing daily blood glucose monitoring (75% vs. 47.7%, P < 0.05), taking medications (81.7% vs. 42.2%, P = 0.01) and following an appropriate meal plan (87.6% vs. 62.2%, P < 0.05). Fifty-three percent can only understand simple or familiar questions about their diabetes care; 65.