Conversations between HCPs, adolescents, and OTX015 molecular weight parents about this decision could propagate already existing parental misconceptions about adolescent risk and STI vaccines ,  and . HCP communication about STI vaccination may also be shaped by their perceptions of parental concerns about STI vaccination. For example, HCPs in Malaysia and the United States report that parental cultural and/or religious beliefs serve as a barrier to STI vaccination  and . While
this has been substantiated by studies demonstrating that adolescents of religious-based political party members or born-again Christians are less likely to initiate HPV vaccination  and , it has also resulted in hesitancy among some HCPs to recommend HPV vaccine for adolescents in certain cultural and/or religious communities . However, this association may not be uniformly present among all religious/cultural groups. School nurses in the United Kingdom, for example, reported low HPV vaccine uptake in smaller Christian, Church of Wales, and ultra-Orthodox Jewish schools, but good uptake in other schools with a high proportion of Catholic and Muslim students . Many HCPs also believe that the sexual stigma associated with STI vaccination is an important barrier
to vaccine uptake among parents of adolescents  and . However, studies of individual Luminespib order and/or parental attitudes suggest STI vaccine uptake may be more from related to other non-STI-specific
factors such as newness of the vaccine, including efficacy and safety concerns, and need for more vaccine information , , , , , , ,  and . In the United States, the HPV vaccine is one of the most commonly refused vaccine . A recent study found that perceived issues around safety are a major reason for parents deciding not to vaccinate their adolescent against HPV, perhaps more so than lack of HCP recommendation . This indicates that accurate and effective HCP communication about such issues in order to reduce common misconceptions is crucial and should be incorporated within the HCP recommendation. Indeed, HCPs who anticipate parental vaccine safety questions are more likely to recommend HPV vaccination , and data suggest that HCPs can positively impact vaccination decisions of parents with vaccine safety concerns . Thus, HCP communication may be most effective when tailored to the actual decision-making considerations of adolescents and their parents . Systems-based factors may hinder or facilitate HCP communication with adolescents about STI vaccination. Many studies indicate that time constraints affect HCP communication related to adolescent vaccines, including those targeting STIs ,  and .