Cognitive dysfunctions are directly correlated with Aβ oligomers

Cognitive dysfunctions are Libraries directly correlated with Aβ oligomers in Tg2576 mice, which start at around 6 months old and are stable until 14 months old [29]. Thus, we first evaluated cognitive NVP-AUY922 concentration functions in both non-tg (n = 18) and Tg2576 mice (n = 24) at the age of 12 months. After the behavioral test, mice were divided into two groups to be treated with rSeV-LacZ or rSeV-Aβ. There is no difference between the two groups in behavioral scores at the age of 12 months. To evaluate the effect of vaccine treatment, each group (rSeV-LacZ-treated non-tg mice, n = 9; rSeV-Aβ-treated non-tg mice, n = 9; rSeV-LacZ-treated

Tg2576 mice, n = 10; rSeV-Aβ-treated Tg2576 mice, n = 14) was subjected to behavioral tests at the age of 15 months. All tests were done according to the methods described previously [30]. 24 h after 10 min-training session following 3 day-habituation, each mouse was placed back into the same box in which one of the familiar objects used during training was replaced with a novel one. The animals

were then allowed to Staurosporine explore freely for 10 min and the time spent exploring each object was recorded. The exploratory preference (%), a ratio of the amount of time spent exploring any one of the two objects (training session) or the novel object (retention session) over the total time spent exploring both objects was used to measure cognitive function. Each mouse was placed at the center of the apparatus and allowed

to move freely through the maze during an 8-min session, and the series of arm entries was recorded visually. Alternation was defined as successive entry into the three arms on overlapping triplet sets. The % alternation was calculated as the ratio of actual alternations to the possible alternations (defined as the number of arm entries minus two) multiplied by 100. The Morris water maze test was conducted in a circular pool (1.2 m in diameter) with a hidden platform (7 cm in diameter) filled with water at a temperature of 22 ± 1 °C. The mice were given two trials Bay 11-7085 (one block) for 10 consecutive days during which the platform was left in the same position. The time and distance taken to reach to the escape platform (escape latency and distance moved) was determined in each trial by using the Etho Vision system (Brainscience Co. Ltd., Osaka, Japan). Three hours after the last training trial, the platform was removed, and mice were allowed for 60 s to search the removed platform. For measuring basal levels of freezing response (preconditioning phase), mice were individually placed in a neutral cage for 1 min, and then in the conditioning cage for 2 min. For conditioning, mice were placed in the cage, and an 80 dB tone was delivered for 15 s. During the last 5 s of the tone stimulus, a foot shock of 0.

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