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contributions MD and OA carried out the experiments. SL and FJ were involved in instrument design, fabrication and calibration. MD, VA and DT carried out the simulations. CF, AB and DT participated in data interpretation and discussion. DT coordinated this study. MD, CF and DT drafted the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.”
“Background Quantum dot solar cells have attracted much attention because of their potential to increase conversion efficiency [1]. Specifically, the optical absorption edge of a semiconductor nanocrystal is often shifted due to quantum size effects. The optical band gap can then be tuned to an effective energy region for absorbing the maximum intensity of the solar radiation spectrum. Furthermore, quantum dots produce multiple electron–hole pairs per photon through impact ionization, whereas bulk semiconductor produces one electron–hole pair per photon. A wide-gap semiconductor sensitized by semiconductor nanocrystals is a candidate material for such use. Wide-gap materials such as TiO2 and ZnO can only absorb the ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar radiation spectrum. The semiconductor nanocrystal supports the absorption of visible (vis) and near-infrared (NIR) light.

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