Another limitation is that we did not investigate the intake of vegetables since this information was not covered by the questionnaires used in the survey. We also highlight the fact that information on physical activity was also self-reported, which may lead to overestimation. The criterion
used to define alcohol intake was highly sensitive, as the prevalence of adolescents who ingested alcohol on a daily basis was very low. Finally, the use of a cut-off point RAD001 molecular weight to analyze the risk factor score may be Modulators controversial. However, we analyzed the chance to present one more risk factor, through ordinal analyses, and the results were similar (data not shown). Studies investigating the clustering of risk factors for chronic conditions vary greatly as to the sets of factors under study, which makes comparisons between different studies difficult. It should be noted that biological risk factors (high arterial selleck pressure, hypercholesterolemia, among others) are at the core of most CNCD risk factor clustering studies, especially those focusing on cardiovascular disease. In the present study, however, we placed greater emphasis on behavioral
risk factors, given the evidence that lifestyle variables have a greater tendency to cluster and are potentially modifiable (Schuit et al., 2002). We highlight the important clustering effect for smoking and alcohol intake found in the present study. This finding underscores the importance of educating adolescents as to the importance of avoiding such behaviors, since one behavior Ketanserin leads to the other, as well as to the intake of heavier drugs. We also demonstrate the clustering of these both behaviors
(smoking and alcohol) with low fruit intake among girls and with physical inactivity among boys. Special attention should be given to adolescents from poorer families, since this group was more vulnerable to displaying three or more risk factors for CNCDs. Our results may have important implications in terms of health policy and practice given that the high prevalence of multiple CNCD risk factors underscore the importance of interventions aimed at their reduction. Adolescence is a period in which lifestyle habits are being formed and consolidated. Many of the behaviors acquired during adolescence tend to remain through to adult life, with important implications for adult health. Given that behavioral risk factors such as those investigated in the present study are potentially modifiable, identifying subgroups that are at higher risk of simultaneously displaying multiple factors is of extreme importance if we wish to reduce propensity to chronic diseases in adult life. None. “
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