“Although cannabinoid CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) are densely expressed in neurons expressing dopamine D1 receptors (D1Rs), it is not fully understood to what extent they modulate emotional PRN1371 concentration behaviors. We used conditional CB1R knock-out animals lacking CB1Rs in neurons expressing D1R (D1-CB1(-/-)) in order to answer this question. To elucidate the behavioral effects of CB1R deficiency in this specific neuronal subpopulation, we subjected D1-CB1(-/-) mice to a battery of behavioral tests which included exploration-based
tests, depressive-like behavioral tests, social behavior, and fear-related memory paradigms. D1-CB1(-/-) did not show any difference in the exploration-based paradigms such as open field, elevated plus maze, or novel object investigation test, except for an increase in novelty-induced grooming. By contrast, they showed a mild anhedonia-like state as described by the slightly decreased preference for sweet solution, as compared to wild-type control group. This decrease, however, could be observed only during the first day of exposure, thus suggesting increased neophobia as an alternative explanation. Accordingly, LY2157299 clinical trial mutant mice
performed normally in the forced swim test, a procedure widely used for evaluating behavioral despair in rodents. However, weak-to moderate anxiety-like phenotypes were evident when D1-CB1(-/-) mice were tested for social behavior. Most strikingly, D1-CB1(-/-) mice exhibited significantly increased contextual and auditory-cued fear, with attenuated within session extinction, suggesting that a specific reduction of endocannabinoid signaling in neurons expressing dopamine D1Rs is able to affect acute fear adaptation. These results provided first direct evidence for a cross-talk between dopaminergic D1Rs and endocannabinoid system in terms of controlling negative affect.”
“In this study, the effect of different storage temperatures (25,35 and 45 degrees selleck screening library C) and storage times (0,45 and 90 days) on physicochemical properties (color values,
pH, and brix) and HMF (5-hydroxymethylfurfural) contents of grape, mulberry, black mulberry and carob molasses samples was studied. A two factor-three level composite face center design was performed to model and study effects of these factors on the HMF contents of these samples. As a result, storage temperature and time values were found to remarkably change the physicochemical properties and HMF contents. HMF content of the molasses samples increased with temperature and storage time. The highest HMF levels were generally observed in mulberry and black mulberry molasses. The best fitting second order polynomial models were developed using multiple linear regression analysis with backward elimination regression (BER) procedure to remove insignificant factors and interactions from the models. R-2 values of the established models were higher than 0.844, indicating that models were adequate to predict HMF content. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.