A fracture cohort was chosen as this is characterized by the high

A fracture cohort was chosen as this is characterized by the high prevalence of osteoporosis [21]. We hypothesized that reduced P2X7R function due to the presence of non-synonymous SNPs in the P2RX7 would be associated with lower BMD values and increased risk of osteoporosis. Materials and methods Study population and design The study base for the present study consisted of men and women aged ≥50 years, who visited an osteoporosis

outpatient clinic at the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC+), the Netherlands, for standard medical care following see more a recent traumatic or non-traumatic fracture. Fracture patients suffering from a disease of bone metabolism other than osteoporosis (e.g. Paget disease, selleck chemicals bone tumours, hyperparathyroidism) were excluded from participation in the present study. The regular medical follow-up procedure for fracture patients was as follows [21]:

1. Patients who presented with a clinical fracture (confirmed on X-ray) at the emergency unit or who were hospitalized because of a fracture, were invited to the fracture and osteoporosis outpatient clinic;   2. During a first consultation, usually 2–6 weeks following the fracture, besides receiving information about the outpatient clinic and possible treatment regimes, patients were asked to undergo a bone densitometry;   3. During a second consultation, usually 2–4 weeks later, BMD measurement was performed by dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and, in addition, risk factors for falls and osteoporosis were assessed; if indicated, medical treatment for osteoporosis was started according to the Dutch osteoporosis guideline recommendation.   For the present study, we recruited O-methylated flavonoid subjects at the outpatient clinic using two different procedures: First, between August 2008 and December 2009, patients at the outpatient clinic received extensive oral and written information about the study during their first visit; then, during a second visit, written informed consent was obtained, and blood samples were collected and stored at −80 °C for subsequent DNA extraction

and genotyping. Second, to increase statistical power, selleck inhibitor saliva was collected from fracture patients who had formerly visited the osteoporosis outpatient clinic before August 2008. Eligible patients for this recruitment procedure were identified using an existing patient database of the osteoporosis outpatient clinic at MUMC+, which had been initiated in September 2004. All eligible patients received an information package by mail, which included: (1) a letter to inform patients about the present study; (2) a standard device to collect saliva together with instructions for its use; (3) an informed consent form; and (4) a return envelop with pre-printed address. Patients willing to participate were asked to sign the informed consent form, to donate a small amount of saliva, and to send both of these back to us in the return envelop.

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