Therefore, Amblyomin-X may provide an important scientific tool, considering the relevance of new vessels formation on development of cancer and inflammatory diseases. This work was supported by the Brazilian agencies Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP http://www.selleckchem.com/products/r428.html – 08/57850-8, 2010/52669-3, CAT-CEPID/FAPESP), União Quimica Farmacêutica Nacional and Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento (CNPq, INCTTox). Carine C. Drewes and Rodrigo Y. S. Dias are graduate fellows of FAPESP and Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES), respectively. Cristina B. Hebeda is a CAPES post-doctoral
fellow, Sandra A. Barreto is a CNPq doctoral fellow, Simone M. Simons is a FAPESP post-doctoral fellow. Ana Marisa Chudzinski-Tavassi and Sandra H.P. Farsky are CNPq fellows. “
“Zearalenone (ZEA) is a non-steroidal estrogenic mycotoxin produced by the fungi Fusarium culmorum and Fusarium graminearum
( Langseth et al., 1998; Marasas et al., 1984), which are commonly found in the soil in temperate and warm countries and are frequent contaminants of cereal crops worldwide ( Zinedine et al., 2007). ZEA is rapidly absorbed following oral intake and, during subsequent metabolism selleck inhibitor mainly in the liver and intestine, it is transformed into α- and β-zearalenol (α- and β-ZOL), α-and β-zearalanol (α- and β-ZEA) and zearalanone (ZEA), all of which are subsequently conjugated to glucuronic acid ( Gromadzka et al., 2008). A variety of other tissues, including the kidney, testis, prostate, hypothalamus and ovary, also contain the major enzymes (3α- and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase) able to metabolize mycotoxins ( Olsen et al., 1981). ZEA is genotoxic and responsible of a potent reproductive toxicity in humans and animals ( Abbes Inositol monophosphatase 1 et al., 2007; Salah-Abbes et al., 2009a; Tomaszewski et al., 1998). ZEA has been shown to be immunotoxic ( Abbes et al., 2006; Ben Salah-Abbes et al.,
2008), hepatonephrotoxic ( Salah-Abbes et al., 2009b) and apoptotic ( Abid-Essefi et al., 2003). Such toxic effects of ZEA and its metabolites have been ascribed primarily to its chemical structure that resembles that of naturally occurring estrogens (Gromadzka et al., 2008), but the exact underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In this context, oxidative stress has been considered to play an important role in the toxic effects after mycotoxins exposure. In fact, oxidative damage has been described in rats fed with diets containing high levels of ZEA (Becci et al., 1982). Moreover, it has been demonstrated that ZEA and it metabolites induces lipid oxidation and increases the production of malondialdehyde in several cell lines (Hassen et al., 2007; Kouadio et al., 2005; Othmen et al., 2008). Furthermore, antioxidants such as vitamins A, E and C reduced the formation of DNA adducts induced by this mycotoxin in renal cells (Szkudelska et al., 2002).