Bacterial adhesion was measured by a modified ELISA where MDMs (2

Bacterial adhesion was measured by a modified ELISA where MDMs (2.5 × 105 MDMs per well) were cultured on 96-well flat bottom tissue culture plates, washed with PBS, fixed with glutaraldehyde and incubated with biotinylated bacterial suspensions (Fallgren et al., 2001). Briefly, equal volumes of bacteria and biotin (EZ-Link-Sulfo-NHS-LC-biotin; Boule Nordic AB, Sweden) find more solution (0.2 mg mL−1 in PBS, pH 7.6) were

incubated for 2 h at ambient temperature. Staphylococcal cells were washed three times with PBS and resuspended in PBS containing 1% BSA at the original concentration. Plates containing macrophage monolayers were blocked for 1 h at 37 °C with 3% BSA in PBS. Wells were emptied, washed twice with PBS, then filled with 100 μL biotinylated bacterial cell suspension in PBS (1 × 108 CFU mL−1) and incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. Unbound bacteria were removed with PBS containing 0.05% Tween 20. NeutrAvidin™-HRP labelled (Boule Nordic AB) (100 μL of 1/1500 dilution in PBS containing 1% BSA) was added to each well and incubated for 1 h at 37 °C. Plates were washed three times with PBS, and 100-μL ImmunoPure TMB substrate kit (Boule Thiazovivin clinical trial Nordic AB)

was added to each well. Colour was allowed to develop for 5 min, and the reaction was stopped with 1 M H2SO4. The absorbance at 450 nm was measured with a microtiter plate reader. Controls used in the ELISA assay were the following: (1) wells containing cells incubated with all ingredients except biotinylated bacteria and (2) wells containing cells incubated only with ImmunoPure TMB substrate. In all experiments, four wells for each type of bacteria/cell interaction were used. Estimation of the number of attached bacteria was standardized as follows: serial 1 : 2 dilutions of biotinylated bacteria (7.8 × 104 to 1 × 107 CFU per well) in distilled water were seeded onto the bottom of 96-well plates by allowing bacteria to dry overnight at 37 °C and were then fixed for 10 min with methanol. Florfenicol ELISA with NeutrAvidin-HRP labelled and ImmunoPure TMB substrate was performed as previously described. OD450 nm values were plotted

as a function of the number of bacteria in each well. A standard curve prepared for each experiment was used to calculate the number of bacteria attached per well (Fig. 1). Phagocytosis experiments were performed by co-incubation of cells (2.5 × 105) with bacteria at 1 : 10 ratio for 20, 40, 60, 90 and 120 min. At each time point, 20 μL lysostaphin (1 mg mL−1) was added for 10 min, to lyse extracellular bacteria. Aforementioned lysostaphin concentration was the minimum concentration required to accomplish lysis of biofilm phase bacteria. Cells were washed three times with PBS and lysed by 0.1% Triton X-100. Viable intracellular bacteria were counted by plating serial dilutions of lysates on blood agar plates.

“A facultative methanotroph, Methylocystis strain SB2, was

“A facultative methanotroph, Methylocystis strain SB2, was examined for its ability to degrade chlorinated hydrocarbons when grown on methane or ethanol. Strain SB2 grown on methane degraded vinyl chloride (VC), trans-dichloroethylene (t-DCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), and chloroform (CF), but not dichloromethane (DCM). Growth on methane was reduced in the presence of any chlorinated hydrocarbon. Strain SB2 grown on ethanol degraded VC, t-DCE, and TCE, and 1,1,1-TCA, but not

DCM or CF. With the exception of 1,1,1-TCA, the growth of strain SB2 on ethanol was not affected by any individual chlorinated hydrocarbon. No degradation of any chlorinated hydrocarbon was observed when acetylene was added to ethanol-grown cultures, indicating that this degradation was due to particulate AZD5363 price methane monooxygenase (pMMO) activity. When mixtures of chlorinated alkanes or alkenes were added to cultures growing on methane or ethanol, chlorinated alkene degradation C59 wnt cell line occurred, but chlorinated alkanes were not, and growth was reduced on both methane and ethanol. Collectively, these data indicate that competitive inhibition of pMMO activity limits methanotrophic growth

and pollutant degradation. Facultative methanotrophy may thus be useful to extend the utility of methanotrophs for bioremediation as the use of alternative growth substrates allows for pMMO activity to be focused on pollutant degradation. Methanotrophs are a group of phylogenetically diverse bacteria that consume methane, and as such, play a critical role in the global carbon cycle (Semrau et al., 2010). Until recently, it was believed

that methanotrophs were functionally quite limited, being able to only utilize a small range of compounds for growth, for example, methane and methanol, and could not utilize multicarbon compounds as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Several studies, however, have found that a variety of acidophilic and mesophilic methanotrophs in the Alphaproteobacteria can indeed grow facultatively, i.e., on a variety of small organic acids and ethanol (Dedysh et al., 2005; Sitaxentan Dunfield et al., 2010; Belova et al., 2011; Im et al., 2011). Of these facultative methanotrophs, Methylocystis strain SB2 and Methylocystis strain H2s have been shown to constitutively express the particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) regardless of the growth substrate (Belova et al., 2011; Yoon et al., 2011). Such a finding is intriguing as methanotrophs have been shown to be able to oxidize priority pollutants such as halogenated hydrocarbons via pMMO activity (Lontoh & Semrau, 1998; Han et al., 1999; Lee et al., 2006). As described earlier (Yoon et al., 2011), pollutant degradation via facultative methanotrophy may enhance bioremediation strategies, given the greater solubility of the alternative growth substrates (i.e.

Both Polymyxa graminis and Polymyxa betae were identified This i

Both Polymyxa graminis and Polymyxa betae were identified. This is the first report of infection of Arabidopsis by Polymyxa spp. and shows the possibility Idelalisib manufacturer of using this system for studies of infection biology and host–parasite interactions. Polymyxa spp. are a group of obligate root-infecting organisms belonging to the plasmodiophorid group that are important plant–virus vectors (Kanyuka et al., 2003). Polymyxa graminis transmits viruses such as soil-borne cereal mosaic virus (SBCMV), soil-borne wheat mosaic virus and wheat spindle streak mosaic virus to cereals. Polymyxa

betae transmits beet necrotic yellow vein virus, the cause of rhizomania, to sugar beet. Polymyxa graminis has a wide host range including wheat, barley, rye, rice, sorghum, groundnut and various grasses, whereas P. betae is mostly restricted to beet and other plants in the family Chenopodiaceae. A number of subgroups (ribotypes) of Polymyxa spp. have been identified according to rDNA sequence data (Ward et al., 1994, 2005; Ward & Adams, 1998; Legrève et al., 2002). Some of the P. graminis ribotypes appear to differ in host range and temperature requirements, leading to the suggestion that they should be classified as formae speciales (Legrève et al., 1998, 2002). Two groups of P. graminis isolates are found in temperate regions: ribotype I (f. sp. temperata) and ribotype II (f. sp. tepida). All HSP inhibitor clinical trial internal transcribed

spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences find more for P. betae reported to date fall

into two types that differ by only one base pair (Ward & Adams, 1998; Legrève et al., 2002). Because of their obligate nature and relatively long life cycle, Polymyxa spp. have been difficult to study. The development of a model system for studying Polymyxa–plant interactions would be extremely useful. Arabidopsis thaliana is an invaluable model system for several reasons: (1) short generation time, (2) the ability to grow large numbers in a relatively small space, (3) its ability to self-fertilize, (4) the large number of progeny that can be produced from a single plant, (5) its small haploid genome containing a relatively small number of repetitive genetic elements, (6) the availability of a fully sequenced genome, (7) the availability of mutagenized lines, (8) ease of transformation and (9) the large number of ecotypes exhibiting natural variation available (Meyerowitz, 1989). These features are in contrast to many crop species such as cereals, where genetic resources are less well advanced. Arabidopsis has already been used very successfully to study the interactions of another plasmodiophorid: Plasmodiophora brassicae (Koch et al., 1991). The ability to separate host sequences from those of Plasmodiophora by bioinformatics analysis has simplified the interpretation of data, for example from suppressive subtractive hybridization experiments to study gene structure and expression (Bulman et al., 2006, 2007).

Furthermore, the increase in adverse events appears highest in th

Furthermore, the increase in adverse events appears highest in the first 90 days after stopping the thienopyridine antiplatelet clopidogrel in both medically and PCI-treated ACS patients (incidence rate ratios 1.98 and 1.82 respectively).[17] This study did not explore the reasons why patients stopped taking thienopyridine drug therapy. Even assuming that adherence to dual antiplatelet post-PCI medication is good, stent thrombosis

occurs in 0.5–2% of elective and up to 6% of ACS patients who are given a stent.[18] Thus the risk of a cardiovascular event due to stent thrombosis increases with increasing non-adherence. In a further study investigating the prevalence and predictors of thienopyridine antiplatelet discontinuation post-myocardial infarction (MI) in patients treated with BMS, almost one in Selleckchem PD-166866 seven patients discontinued thienopyridine by day 30.[19] This was associated with a significantly higher increase in mortality over the next 11 months (7.5 compared with 0.7%, P<0.0001). Those who discontinued

were less educated, not married, had previous co-morbidities and were generally older. What the study did not illustrate, beyond interpretation of demographic data, were the reasons why individual patients had stopped their medication. However, it does allow for hypotheses to be drawn from the results, which can be explored further using qualitative techniques. The effect of medication cost in relation to adherence has been studied by Ko et al.[20] in 10 000 patients, all of whom were above the age of 65 Fluorouracil in vivo and had received either BMS or DES as PCI in Canada. Thienopyridine antiplatelet therapy was given to patients at low cost. This

study found that non-adherence was highest in the patients who had to pay the most for their prescription. The group who received free medication were almost 70% more likely to order prescriptions, thus implying a prohibitive effect of healthcare charges and supporting the argument that patients who have to pay for medication are less likely to access it. Non-adherence increased Benzatropine the risk of mortality. The investigators also found that patient adherence decreased with increasing time after the index event, suggesting that a degree of ambivalence manifests with time. The effect of adherence to statin therapy has also been investigated post-PCI.[21] The relative risk reduction for those on statin post-PCI was reported as 22% in the original trial. After analysis and adjusting for non-compliance, the relative risk reduction for major cardiac events was 32%, with the additional 10% relative risk reduction being due purely to good adherence to medication. Previous research has quantitatively characterised some aspects of medication adherence post-PCI. However, there has not been a detailed exploration of the patient-specific factors relating to such adherence.

If continuing systemic CMV replication is indeed what drives such

If continuing systemic CMV replication is indeed what drives such a huge component of the immune system to be directed towards this pathogen, as well as contributing to the problem of persistent T-cell activation despite antiretroviral suppression of HIV, then active anti-CMV therapy should be aggressively investigated

as a means to delay immunosenescence and minimize pathogenic T-cell activation in HIV-infected patients. These potential links between CMV, immune activation, immunosenescence, morbidity and mortality signal an emerging need for the development of safer, more effective CMV drugs to be used in this setting. “
“Maltose transporter genes were isolated from four lager yeast strains and sequenced. All four strains contain at least two different types of maltose transporter LGK 974 genes, MTT1 and MAL31. In addition, ‘long’ 2.7 kb, and ‘short’ 2.4 kb, versions of each type exist. The size difference is caused by the insertion of two repeats of 147 bp into the promoter regions of the long versions of the genes. As a consequence of the insertion, two Mal63-binding sites move 294 bp away from the transcription initiation site. The 2.4- and 2.7-kb versions are further highly similar. Only the 2.4-kb versions and not the 2.7-kb versions of MTT1 could restore the rapid growth of lager yeast strain A15 on maltotriose

in the presence of antimycin A. These results suggest that insertion of the two repeats into the promoter region of the ‘long versions’ of MTT1 genes led to a diminished expression of these genes. None of the tested long and short versions of the MAL31 genes were able to restore this growth. As the promoter regions of the MTT1 and MAL31

genes are identical, small differences in the protein sequence may be responsible for the different properties of these genes. Efficient beer fermentation requires the rapid and complete utilization of the fermentable sugars in wort (Hornsey, 1999). The concentration of these sugars may vary in different selleck products worts, but maltose is the most abundant fermentable sugar, followed by maltotriose. All α-glucosides are actively transported into yeast cells by a H+-symport mechanism, which depends on the electrochemical proton gradient across the plasma membrane (Van Leeuwen et al., 1992). Lager yeasts contain multiple maltose/maltotriose transporter genes including MALx1 (in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, x may be 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, representing different loci of the MAL gene cluster), AGT1 (MAL11), MPH2, MPH3 and MTT1 (Han et al., 1995; Klein et al., 1996; Jespersen et al., 1999; Salema-Oom et al., 2005). The latter gene, MTT1, was found previously to encode a maltose/maltotriose transporter with a relatively high affinity for maltotriose (Dietvorst et al., 2005).

The PCRs were carried out with an initial denaturation step at 95

The PCRs were carried out with an initial denaturation step at 95 °C for 5 min, followed by 25 or 30 cycles (for 16S rRNA gene and mbfA, respectively) of denaturation at 95 °C for 1 min, annealing at 58 °C for 1 min and extension at 72 °C for 1 min, with a final extension step at 72 °C for 5 min. The RT-PCR products were visualized after gel electrophoresis on a 2% agarose gel stained with ethidium bromide. 16S rRNA, a housekeeping gene, was used as a control. The mbfA RT-PCR products were quantified using ImageQuant™

TL find more (GE Healthcare). An A. tumefaciens mbfA mutant strain (NR114) was constructed. First, the biological effect of mbfA inactivation on bacterial growth under high- and low-iron conditions was investigated. Exponential-growth phase cells of the wild-type NTL4 and the NR114 mutant grown in LB medium (iron-sufficient conditions) were subsequently treated selleck chemical with 100 μM FeCl3 or 300 μM 2,2′-dipyridyl (an iron chelator, Dipy), which represents high- or low-iron conditions, respectively. After incubation at 28 °C with shaking for 24 h, the OD600 nm was measured. The wild-type and the mutant strains showed no significant differences in growth (data not shown). It is possible

that mbfA may not play a major role in response to iron levels under the tested conditions. To assess whether MbfA plays a role in H2O2 resistance, an H2O2 sensitivity test was performed using wild-type NTL4 and NR114 mutant strains. The NR114 mutant was approximately 10-fold more sensitive than wild-type NTL4 to 350 μM H2O2 (Fig. 2a). To test whether the H2O2-hypersensitive phenotype of NR114 can be reversed by the addition of an iron chelator, Dipy was added to

the medium. The addition of 50 μM Dipy (Fig. 2a) or 100 μM Dipy (data not shown) was unable to reverse the H2O2-hypersensitive heptaminol phenotype of NR114. In the complementation assay, wild-type NTL4 and NR114 containing either the plasmid vector pBBR1MCS-4 (pBBR) or the plasmid expressing functional mbfA (pNR114C) were used. The H2O2-hypersensitive phenotype of the mutant could be reversed in the complemented strain, NR114/pNR114C (Fig. 2b). These data confirm that the loss of mbfA is responsible for the H2O2-hypersensitive phenotype of NR114 and that MbfA is important for protecting A. tumefaciens against H2O2 killing. Agrobacterium tumefaciens has two catalases, KatA and CatE, which have been shown to play major protective roles against H2O2 toxicity (Prapagdee et al., 2004).

, 2004) Here, we

present a newly devised PCR-RFLP method

, 2004). Here, we

present a newly devised PCR-RFLP method to differentiate M.tb from other members of the MTC on the basis of the −6T/C narK2 promoter SNP. Because none of these PCR-RFLP methods can fully differentiate the MTC members, a combination of different PCR-RFLP assays can improve the confidence of diagnosis. Previously, the −215T/C SNP upstream of narGHJI was correlated with differential nitrate reduction in MTC (Stermann et al., 2004); M. tb having the −215T genotype could reduce nitrate, whereas other members having the −215C genotype could not reduce nitrate. However, an extension of this analysis to more strains refuted this hypothesis on the basis of high nitrate reductase activity in M. canetti (−215C genotype) and some other ancestral strains of the M. tb−215C genotype (Goh et al., 2005). Interestingly, the nitrate reductase activity of MTC strains correlates better with the −6T/C SNP present in the narK2X promoter. Y-27632 in vivo Both M. tb and M. canetti have the −6T genotype and both can reduce nitrate, whereas M. africanum, M. microti, M. bovis and BCG have the −6C genotype and all lack nitrate reductase activity. Because the −6C genotype results

in completely abolishing narK2X promoter activity, it is likely that all these species lack functional narK2X genes and this promoter defect is one of the key factors contributing to the lack of inducible nitrate reductase activity in them. The plasmid pNarG-GM1 was a generous gift provided by Dr C.D. Sohaskey. We sincerely acknowledge Dr H.K. Prasad, India, for providing genomic

DNA of clinical isolates of the MTC. This work was financially supported by a grant to J.S.T. ABT-199 in vitro from the Department of Biotechnology, Government of India. S.C. is grateful to CSIR for a research associateship. We acknowledge the facilities of the Biotechnology Information Systems (BTIS), Department of Biotechnology, and Government of India. “
“Methanococcus maripaludis has two surface appendages, namely flagella and pili. Flagella have been shown to be required for swimming, but no specific role has been assigned as yet to pili. In this report, wild-type M. maripaludis cells are compared with mutants lacking either pili or flagella or both surface appendages isothipendyl in their ability to attach to a variety of surfaces including nickel, gold and molybdenum grids as well as glass, silicon and mica. Wild-type cells attached to varying degrees to all surfaces tested, except mica, via their flagella as observed by scanning electron microscopy. Large cables of flagella were found to leave the cell and to be unwound on the surface. In addition, such cables were often found to connect cells. In contrast, cells lacking either flagella or pili or both surface appendages were unable to attach efficiently to any surfaces. This indicates a second role for flagella in addition to swimming in M. maripaludis, as well as a first role for pili in this organism, namely in surface attachment.

Expression of nla6S increases about sixfold during the early stag

Expression of nla6S increases about sixfold during the early stages of fruiting body development (Fig. 1), suggesting that Nla6S plays a role in the developmental process in M. xanthus. When we scanned the sequenced genomes of other myxobacteria in the Cystobacterineae RGFP966 nmr suborder, we found potential orthologs of nla6S in all species that form fruiting bodies (Fig. 6) and we failed to find potential orthologs in all nonfruiting species. Based

on these findings and the fact that Nla6S has a novel CA domain, we propose that Nla6S is the prototype for new family of HKs that are involved in fruiting body development in Cystobacterineae. Although we found nla6S-like genes in all the sequenced genomes of Cystobacterineae members that undergo fruiting body development, we did not find potential orthologs of nla6S in fruiting myxobacteria outside this suborder, suggesting that an nla6S-like gene was most likely acquired after the division of the myxobacteria Palbociclib in vivo into the Cystobacterineae suborder. In the M. xanthus chromosome, nla6S is adjacent to the RR gene nla6 (Fig. S3), which is important for production of stress-resistant fruiting body spores (Caberoy et al., 2003). DNA sequence analysis and expression studies suggest that these two genes are co-transcribed (Goldman et al., 2006; Giglio et al., 2011), which led us to speculate that

Nla6 and Nla6S form a TCS. However, we were unable to detect the in vitro transfer of a phosphoryl group from Nla6S to Nla6 (data not shown). Despite this finding, it is possible that these two proteins are

part of the same signal transduction network because HKs also have the capacity to modulate RR activity through dephosphorylation (Huynh & Stewart, 2011). This dephosphorylation activity, known as ‘transmitter phosphatase activity’, is mediated by catalytic residues in the transmitter why domain (Huynh et al., 2010). Transmitter phosphatase activity is catalyzed by a conserved D/EXXT/N motif immediately adjacent to the phospho-accepting His residue in the H-box. Nla6S contains a DXXN motif immediately adjacent to the His58 residue in its DHp domain, which raises the possibility that the primary role of Nla6S is to dephosphorylate Nla6. Perhaps Nla6 is phosphorylated by a small molecule phospho-donor such as acetyl phosphate or by an unidentified HK in vivo and Nla6S regulates its activity via dephosphorylation. Alternatively, it is possible that Nla6S acts as the phospho-donor for Nla6 in vivo, but this phosphotransfer reaction requires the aid of an additional component that was not present in the in vitro phosphotransfer reactions. In addition to its role in fruiting body development, Nla6S appears to be important for vegetative growth. In particular, an nla6S insertion mutant has a severe growth defect and is unstable (data not shown). As nla6S is located upstream of nla6 and these genes are likely to be co-transcribed (Fig.

In contrast to ED utilization in the general population, sociodem

In contrast to ED utilization in the general population, sociodemographic characteristics and drug use contributed little to the probability of ED visits in a cohort of HIV-infected persons receiving care in 1991–1992; ED utilization was primarily driven by disease severity [5]. In-patient utilization has declined and out-patient utilization increased with the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy

(HAART), but rates of ED utilization have not been reported in the current era of HAART [6–10]. ED care is expensive and may be potentially avoidable. Identifying factors associated with ED visits is an important step in improving healthcare delivery to HIV-infected patients and reducing healthcare costs. As HIV-infected patients are now living longer and healthier lives [11–14], Pexidartinib we hypothesized that ED utilization and in-patient admissions would NVP-BEZ235 solubility dmso be more strongly associated with sociodemographic and substance use characteristics, compared with factors related to the clinical aspects of HIV disease [15–19]. The objective of this study was to assess

utilization rates, reasons for ED utilization, and patient characteristics associated with ED utilization in the HAART era among patients who have a primary source of HIV care. We evaluated the characteristics associated with one or more ED visits, including demographic factors, frequency of primary care visits, pain, CD4 cell count and HIV-1 RNA. We also examined factors associated with being admitted to the hospital from the ED. This study was

a cross-sectional survey, based on in-person interviews with patients recruited from HIV clinics. Patients were not recruited directly from EDs. The HIV Research Network (HIVRN) is a consortium of out-patient clinics that provide primary and subspecialty care to HIV-infected adult and paediatric patients. Clinics abstract specified data elements from patients’ medical records; abstracted data are assembled into PAK6 a uniform database and submitted to a Data Coordinating Center [2,20]. Patients are identified only by a coded ID number in the medical record database. Fourteen out of the 15 clinics that treated adult patients participated in conducting interviews with patients. Six are located in the Eastern USA, three in the Midwest, two in the South and three in the West. Seven clinics have academic affiliations; seven are community-based. Initially, Data Coordinating Center staff drew a random sample from each participating clinic using the coded IDs in the medical record database. The sampling frame consisted of active patients in 2002 at these sites. Sampled IDs were then sent to the clinics to be linked with personal identifiers by clinic staff. Because of confidentiality restrictions, each sampled patient had to be first approached by a clinic staff member to solicit participation in the interview. Clinic staff mailed letters of invitation to potential study patients at their last known address.

More positively, in more recent calendar years the incidence of a

More positively, in more recent calendar years the incidence of abortion after HIV diagnosis was lower and comparable to that reported for Italian women in general. This finding has several implications. First, it suggests that the impact of HIV infection on the desire to have children and the decision to terminate pregnancy may have changed over time in HIV-positive women. Indeed, the awareness of HIV infection had a significant

effect only in the 1980s, when women who knew that they were HIV-infected had a 2.5-fold higher risk of abortion compared with those who were unaware of their serostatus. During the 1990s, the incidences of abortion before and after HIV diagnosis were comparable. However, the incidence 5-Fluoracil ic50 in HIV-infected Alectinib mouse women (either before or after diagnosis) was almost twofold that reported for the Italian HIV-negative population [17], suggesting that, regardless of awareness of infection, women

with HIV infection at that time had to be considered a particularly vulnerable group. Hence, our results confirm those of previously published reports indicating that contraception in HIV-infected women is generally suboptimal [18-21]. Many factors may account for unprotected sexual practices among HIV-positive women, including difficulties in negotiating condom use, in particular when they have an

HIV-positive partner [20]. Beliefs regarding lower levels of infectivity under antiretroviral therapy are also associated with less condom use. Studies have reported higher levels of unprotected sex among women after antiretroviral treatment initiation, which did not vary with the therapeutic response [21]. More recently, awareness of HIV infection was again found not to be related to the risk of abortion, and the lower incidence of abortion observed among HIV-positive women aware of their status may partially reflect temporal trends in the epidemiology of HIV acquisition, with the progressive substitution of IDU with women who acquired infection through sexual transmission [1, 13-16]. This change in epidemiology in recent years may also Quinapyramine explain the lack of an association between mode of HIV transmission and abortion documented when we studied only PYFU after HIV diagnosis. The decrease in the abortion rate in the later HAART era has already been described elsewhere [4], and mainly reflects the better life expectancy of HIV-infected women provided by efficient antiretroviral drugs and the wide availability of MTCT protocols, which has increased positive attitudes towards motherhood. Furthermore, the current use of antiretroviral therapy was protective against abortion, after adjusting for other factors.