Firstly, the ability for binary differentiation of human skin sam

Firstly, the ability for binary differentiation of human skin samples

was evaluated for the three standard tests TEER, TEWL and TWF. Therefore, we differentiated valid and invalid excised or reconstructed human skin samples according to the standard limit values for human skin set 1 kΩ, 10 g m−2 h−1 and 2.5 ∗ 10−3 cm h−1 and for TEER, TEWL Alectinib clinical trial and TWF, respectively. In addition one further limit value was used for each test. Based on the outcome, these were more liberal for TEWL (13 g m−2 h−1) and TWF (4.5 ∗ 10−3 cm h−1), yet more strict for TEER (2 kΩ). The minimum (min), maximum (max) and mean absorption results (maxKp and AD) were calculated separately for the defined valid and invalid groups. Furthermore we plotted the single cell results for the defined valid and invalid skin samples. Next, the ability of all five integrity tests (TEER, TEWL, TWF, ISTD and BLUE) to detect and explain minor differences in barrier function was investigated by correlation analyses. For this task, rat skin was included, basically, to make use of the in theory lower donor variability of rat skin for the special investigation in which rat skin was systematically damaged to various grades. For the correlation analyses we grouped all experiments using the same test compound (caffeine, testosterone, MCPA or MCPA-EHE) and barrier system (human, rat or reconstructed human skin) together. Groups with at least 10 single data points

were used for linear regression analysis of integrity test results (independent variable x) against absorption results (AD and maxKp, dependent variable y).

All data points were included independent of valid or invalid selleck products classification. Slopes and correlation coefficients (R2) were reported for evaluation. Min, max and mean values were calculated for each integrity test, but only R2 from correlations with the correct algebraic sign were used. To assess Rapamycin price the variability of the methods and the effect of the human donor, overall, inter- and intra-donor variabilities were calculated for the different methods. Overall variability is given as the variation coefficient (CV, often referred to as the relative standard deviation (SD)) of all skin samples used, inter-donor variability is given as CV calculated with the mean values for each donor and intra-donor variability which corresponds to the method variability is given as the pooled, average, CV for each donor weighted by the number of replicates. If from one human donor both, full-thickness and dermatomed skin, was used, the underlying means and variabilities were calculated separately. For ISTD and the general in vitro dermal absorption method, only the pooled CV could be calculated due to the various kinds of ISTDs and test compounds used. Underlying means were calculated separately for each ISTD or test compound. Since energy spectra of 14C and 3H overlap, a LSC method was used that compensates for the influence of the other isotope.

The maximum thickness of the oil slick in the area of contact wit

The maximum thickness of the oil slick in the area of contact with the coastline is 2 μm. The maximum length of coastline affected by oil pollution occurs in the scenario for the onset of the oil spill on 4 March 2008, followed by the scenarios on 6 February 2008 and 11 January 2008, and finally on 13 September 2008. In the case

of the oil spill beginning on 13 July 2008, the shoreline is not exposed to oil pollution at all. The maximum thickness of the oil slick along the shoreline is in the same order, with values of 77 μm (scenario on 4 March), 55 μm (6 February), 33 μm (11 January) and 12 μm (13 September). The results of this simulation indicate that the stretch of coastline buy Cyclopamine most endangered by a potential oil spill lies around the town of Rovinj ( Figure 16). However, the western and northern parts of the Adriatic coastline (Italy) are not exposed to direct oil contamination. Model results of www.selleckchem.com/products/RO4929097.html evaporation

are compared with the calculated values on the basis of empirical expressions for the following two types of crude oil: Iranian Heavy (API = 30°) and Arabian Heavy (API = 28°). The empirical equations %Ev = (2.27 + 0.045 T) ln(t) and %Ev = (2.71 + 0.045 T) ln(t) are used for Iranian Heavy and Arabian Heavy respectively ( Fingas 2011). Parameter T is the sea temperature given in °C, whereas t is the time elapsed since the spill, given in minutes. Figure 17 shows the time development of evaporation obtained from the model of oil spread by applying the above empirical expressions. The dynamics of physical oceanography parameters and the spread of oil in the northern Adriatic have been analysed with the aid of a numerical model. The hypothetical oil spill scenarios examined involve an oil spill due to ship failure in the position

of the failure of the ‘Und Adriyatik’, with a continuous inflow rate of 18.5 kg− 1 for a period of 12 hours. The oil spreading Adenosine process was also analysed for the subsequent period of two months. Five hypothetical scenarios were simulated, for different times of the oil spill event. The dynamics of the parameters relating to the state of the atmosphere were adopted from the Aladin-HR prognostic atmosphere model. The model of oil spreading and the relevant reactions are based on the Lagrangian model of discrete particles with a random walk approach, using a three-dimensional current field calculated at the first step of the model’s implementation. Apart from advection-dispersion, the model includes the reactive processes of emulsification, dissolution, evaporation and heat exchange between the oil, the sea and the atmosphere. The spilt oil is divided into 8 partial fractions according to its chemical structure. This oil spill modelling shows up the great vulnerability of the Croatian coastline.

The D10 for urethra predicted stricture development, but this cor

The D10 for urethra predicted stricture development, but this correlated directly to the fractionation schedule. The other predictive factor, on multivariate MS-275 chemical structure analysis, was a prostate-specific antigen level lower than 10 ng/mL. These patients had a significantly lower stricture rate. This dose correlation has been reported by other groups. Sullivan et al. (13) reported on the late stricture risk in 474 patients treated with HDRB, either as a boost or as a monotherapy. The EBRT dose used was comparable

with ours, but the HDRB schedules consisted of 16–20 Gy/4 or 19.5 Gy/3. They found a 6-year rate of 11.2% for those who received an HDRB boost to EBRT. They also reported an increased stricture rate using a high-dose single-fraction HDRB with no EBRT. In this group, the actuarial 3-year rate was 15.3%. Pellizzon et al. (14) reported a series of 108 men with a median followup of 4 months who received EBRT and HDRB boost of 16–20 Gy/4. At 5 years, the actuarial stricture free rate was 86.2%. In both these series, the actuarial outcomes are comparable with ours for 18–20 Gy/3–4. In

contrast, many studies, using biologically similar schedules to ours either do not report strictures [15], [16], [17] and [18] or report only a crude rate of less than 12% [11], [13], [19], [20], [21] and [22]. For example, recently Hsu et al. (18) reported the preliminary results of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 0321 study. One hundred twenty-nine patients underwent a 45 Gy EBRT with an HDRB boost of 19 Gy/2. Although

the followup frame is limited, they Omipalisib molecular weight reported actuarial late genitourinary toxicity of less than 3% at 18 months. However, they neither report strictures as oxyclozanide a separate toxicity nor is it clear that the data forms used would capture these episodes with certainty. We were able to document the site of stricture in the vast majority of patients. Consistent with the literature, 43 of 45 strictures were at, or below, the apex. Only 1 patient had an intraprostatic stricture and 1 had a bladder neck contracture. Sullivan et al. (13) reported almost identical pattern of stricture positions, with 35 of 38 strictures seen in the bulbomembranous urethra. The position of strictures, at or below the apex, is suggestive of dose sensitivity in this anatomic region. In a retrospective analysis, Mohammed et al. (11) found that the risk of stricture was significantly associated with a bulbomembranous urethral “hotspot.” In this current analysis, we have not measured dose in the bulbar/apex region. However, a higher urethral D10 correlated to the risk of stricture formation. Therefore, the acceptable maximum to the urethra has, as an absolute value, increased with each change in dose fractionation. If this maximal region is in the apex or bulbar region, any caudal needle movement may increase the stricture risk.

, 2010 and Mata et al , 2010)

, 2010 and Mata et al., 2010). NVP-BKM120 price The authors suggest combining the macro-algae and using large amounts of raw materials to obtain a homogenous high lipid content, and accordingly these seaweeds could be exploited as a source of biodiesel. The present study showed that marine algae subjected to seasonal variations exhibit different concentrations of total, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, with a characteristic profile for each. This is expected for distant systematic relationships between these algae. Both U. linza and P. pavonica had

the highest fatty acid percentages throughout the entire year compared to J. rubens. Palmitic acid (C16:0) was at relatively high concentrations. For U. linza and P. pavonica, palmitic acid comprised approximately 70%. For J. rubens, it comprised approximately 30% of the total saturated fatty acids for the studied seasons. This is a distinctive characteristic because palmitic acid (C16:0) is the primary saturated fatty acid in several seaweeds ( Bemelmans

et al., 2002, Denis et al., 2010, El-Shoubaky et al., 2008, Khotimchenko, 1991 and Matanjun et al., 2009). Simultaneously, docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6) presented with higher concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids in approximately 50% of these algae during the different seasons. However, for U. linza and P. pavonica, it was approximately 25% in autumn and summer, respectively. Gosch et al. Metabolism inhibitor (2012) reported that this essential

polyunsaturated fatty acid is most common in the green seaweeds but is less in the brown and red seaweeds. By contrast, Khairy and El-Shafay (2013) found that it was a primary component in several macro-algae. Interleukin-3 receptor Belarbi et al. (2000) and Chisti (2007) reported that algal oils differ from vegetable oils because they are relatively rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids with four or more double bonds, such as docosahexaenoic acid, which commonly occurs in algal oils. For the ratios of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in this study, P. pavonica exhibited the highest ratios (3.23, 3.37 and 4.05), followed by U. linza (2.55, 2.56 and 3.90), whereas J. rubens displayed relatively low ratios (0.85, 0.76 and 1.09) during the summer, autumn and spring, respectively. The principal component analysis shown in Fig. 1a–c separates these seaweeds based on their total, saturated and unsaturated fatty acids into two groups, with the brown and green seaweeds grouped together and the red seaweed grouped out. However, quantification of the fatty acid components and varying degrees of saturation were significant factors in determining the suitability of these oils as biodiesel feedstock. Ramos et al. (2009) reported that monounsaturated, polyunsaturated and saturated methyl esters predict the critical parameters of the European standard for any biodiesel composition.

The assembled experts at the 2012 conference concurred with the p

The assembled experts at the 2012 conference concurred with the previous recommendation. Retinal achromic patches are basically areas of hypopigmentation on the retina. These patches have been noted to occur in 39% of TSC patients.38 and 40 Incidence in the general population is estimated at 1 in 20,000.41 Because medical problems relating to the brain

result in the greatest morbidity and mortality in TSC, three panels at the 2012 Consensus Conference devoted their efforts to central nervous system–related findings of TSC. The panels were: (3) brain structure, tubers, and tumors; (4) epilepsy; and (5) TSC-associated neuropsychiatric disorders. The click here three panels were in agreement that there should be three neurological findings categorized as major features and that the minor feature of cerebral white matter radial migration lines should be subsumed into one of the major features as reviewed in the following sections. Thus, findings relating to the central nervous were streamlined. Cortical dysplasias are congenital abnormalities caused, at least in part, when a group of neurons fail to migrate to the proper area of the brain during development. The cortical tubers observed in ∼90% of TSC patients and the pathologic finding for which the disorder is named, are a type of focal cortical dysplasia. Cerebral white matter radial migration lines arise from a similar pathologic process as cortical tubers and

other forms of cortical dysplasia and in TSC it is not unusual to find tubers and white matter migrational abnormalities together (Fig 10A). Both types of cortical dysplasia in TSC are commonly associated with intractable epilepsy and learning SB431542 difficulties in TSC. The pathologic and clinical overlap between “cortical tuber” as a major feature and second “cerebral white matter radial migration lines” as a minor feature in the 1998 diagnostic criteria were felt to no longer represent separate processes and are replaced with a single major feature in the new classification “cortical dysplasia.” However, it is appreciated that a single area of focal cortical dysplasia or even two can be observed in an individual who does not have

TSC; thus, in the new diagnostic criteria, multiple areas of focal cortical dysplasia count only as one major feature and additional clinical features are necessary to establish a definite diagnosis of TSC. Subependymal nodules (SEN) and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) will continue to represent two separate major features (Fig 10B). Both of these lesions were also included in the 1998 Consensus Conference Criteria as major features. Histologically, the two lesions are similar and both are relatively specific to TSC although not exclusive to the disorder. Subependymal nodules are benign growths that develop along the wall of the ependymal lining of the lateral and third ventricles. They are observed in 80% of TSC patients and often prenatally detected or at birth.

The Equatorial Atlantic also exhibits large model-data discrepanc

The Equatorial Atlantic also exhibits large model-data discrepancies in fluxes (Fig. 5). This is one of the most perplexing basins, since the model pCO2 results, by all the forcings, are consistent with data: ECMWF and MERRA are within 5 μatm (1.2%) while the two NCEP forcings are within 1 μatm (0.2%) (Fig. 7). Fluxes are a non-linear function of pCO2 (actually delta pCO2), with functions involving wind speed and temperature contributing to the non-linearity (Wanninkhof, 1992). Small differences in these variables may produce

large changes in the fluxes. It is important to remember that the LDEO air–sea fluxes are estimates derived from observed ΔpCO2 and estimated wind speeds, along with a gas transfer coefficient PD98059 ic50 (Takahashi et al., 2009). Gröger and Mikolajewicz (2011) have suggested that the Schmidt number for flux estimates (involved in the gas transfer coefficient) could have issues at temperatures > 30 °C, but neither the sea surface temperature climatologies used by LDEO (from Conkright et al., 2002) or the SST climatologies in our reanalysis data ever exceed this threshold in the Equatorial Atlantic. Additionally, our use of this parameter is the same as for the in situ estimates (Takahashi et al., 2009). As with several other basins, when we

account for sampling, the disparity in fluxes is much smaller. Z-VAD-FMK solubility dmso The in situ flux estimates decline by P-type ATPase nearly half, from 0.63 to 0.33 mol C m−2 y−1. This produces in situ flux estimates similar to the NCEP2 fluxes shown in Fig. 5. MERRA-forced model fluxes sampled to the in situ estimates (Fig. 11) decline only about 0.07 mol C m−2 y−1, so they remain essentially the same as shown in Fig. 5 for this basin. This means that when sampling biases are removed, the difference between MERRA-estimated fluxes and in situ estimates is about the same as the

difference between the model forced by MERRA and by NCEP2. Residual differences are likely due to wind speed resolution differences (we interpolate reanalysis data to the native model grid, 1.25° longitude by 0.67° latitude, compared to the NCEP2 reanalysis re-gridded to 5° longitude by 4° latitude resolution by LDEO). When we interpolate our NCEP2 wind speed reanalysis data over the LDEO resolution, we find a mean increase of 1.86 m s−1 in the Equatorial Atlantic, which would lead to enhanced atmosphere–ocean carbon exchange. Re-gridding can be sensitive to data frequency distributions, especially in small basins such as this one. It can also increase the influence of values over land, which may affect the representation of the mean wind speeds.

batatas, the major host plant of C formicarius ( Chalfant et al

batatas, the major host plant of C. formicarius ( Chalfant et al., 1990), at least 49 other members of the Convolvulaceae BIRB 796 in vivo have been recorded as hosts for C. formicarius, which has been recorded feeding on seven genera in six tribes within this plant family ( Austin et al., 1991). In Guam and other Micronesian Islands, the Aiea Morning Glory, Ipomoea triloba L. (Convolvulaceae), is widespread and serves as an alternative host for C. formicarius ( Reddy et al., 2012b). Because of the cryptic nature of the larvae and the nocturnal activity of the C. formicarius adults, it is becoming difficult to control this pest using chemicals. Additionally, the life history

of C. formicarius make the pest easiest to control with long residual pesticides that are now out of favor and often unavailable. Recently, Leng and Reddy (2012) reported several low-risk insecticides such as spinosad and azadirachtin to be effective against C. formicarius in a laboratory study, but their effectiveness was not tested in the field. Our previous studies dealing with pheromone-baited traps have also shown promise for monitoring this pest ( Reddy et al., 2012a), and mass trapping techniques have been shown to reduce damage caused by C. formicarius ( Reddy

et al., 2014). Sweet potatoes are mainly grown on the island of Rota and exported to other neighboring GSK J4 clinical trial islands. Since there are no quarantine restrictions to the movements of sweet potatoes among the Mariana Islands (Guam and Northern Mariana Islands of Saipan, Rota and Saipan), C. formicarius is spreading to new areas. The larvae and adults of C. formicarius are susceptible to many natural enemies such as parasitoids, predators, and pathogens Inositol monophosphatase 1 ( Jansson, 1991). In particular, the fungal pathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum (a taxon in the Metarhizium anisopliae species complex) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) have commonly been observed to attack C. formicarius ( Jansson, 1991) and other Cylas species ( Ondiaka et al., 2008). Entomopathogenic fungi such as those from the M. anisopliae and B. bassiana species complexes

are currently being used to control agricultural and forest pests worldwide ( Butt et al., 2001). These fungi are registered in the USA, as well as in many other countries, as biopesticides ( Kabaluk et al., 2010). Such microbial biopesticides are sustainable in IPM programs because of their active relationship with insects. In some cases, compatible products may be combined with entomopathogenic fungi to increase control, to decrease the amount of insecticides required, and to minimize the risks of environmental pollution and pest resistance ( Quintela and McCoy, 1998). Nonetheless, the efficacy of some fungi as a biological control agents can be reduced by unfavorable temperature and humidity ( Yasuda et al., 1997). However, the hot and humid conditions of sweet potato fields in Guam and other Micronesian Islands are favorable for the use of B. bassiana and M. anisopliae.

To conclude, findings suggest that body movements perceived as do

To conclude, findings suggest that body movements perceived as dominant were also perceived as extraverted and as unfriendly or aggressive (i.e., low agreeableness). We were not able to determine whether applause triggers “certain displays”

or “certain displays” trigger applause. Future research, therefore, should analyze whether certain behaviors occur more often after people have applauded. This could clarify the causal check details direction of the relationship between nonverbal displays and applause. In addition, with the presented experimental set-up we were unable to reveal how verbal content and information from other communication channels are related to body motion. It is very plausible that “aggressive” body movements are coupled to an “aggressive” language that is aimed at political opponents. This also needs to be investigated in future studies. As already demonstrated in previous work, body motion Selleck Dapagliflozin appears to be an important nonverbal communication channel that conveys affective and social information. In the current study we found that people’s

attributions of dominance, extraversion, and agreeableness to speakers’ body movements can provide sufficient information to predict the amount of applause the speakers received throughout their entire speech. Nonverbal displays expressing qualities such as dominance might be important for those who strive for leadership positions while potential followers might benefit from easily recognizing who has the ability to be a leader. Consequently, such information of social relevance might be legible from different nonverbal and verbal communication channels including body motion. This research was funded by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF): P 25262-G16. “
“In Table 1, the author has misreported the correlation between attachment avoidance and difficulties in emotion regulation should be positive rather than negative (consistent with the hypotheses, the data, and the results Phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase of the mediation analyses). The mediation analyses

are reported in the correct direction (attachment avoidance predicts greater difficulties in emotion regulation), but the typographical error in the correlation of −.38 (between attachment avoidance and difficulties in emotion regulation) should read as positive (.38). It appears that this error was overlooked by us when proofing the manuscript. The results of the manuscript hold and are correct. However, the authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused. The updated Table 1 is as below: “
“The periaqueductal gray area (PAG) is a mesencephalic region that integrates behavioral and cardiovascular responses in rodents (Huang et al., 2000, Jenck et al., 1989 and Nashold et al., 1969). The PAG is functionally subdivided into four longitudinal columns along its rostrocaudal axis: the dorsomedial, dorsolateral, lateral and ventrolateral columns (Bandler et al., 1991).

The successful substructure solution presented here adds to the d

The successful substructure solution presented here adds to the database of largest selenium substructures that has been determined to date [30]. Although the diffraction

limit of the CaAK crystals was relatively low (3 Å resolution). However, the resolution was compensated by the significant level of non-crystallographic symmetry (NCS) restraints, enabling refinement of the structure. The overall geometry of the model is of good quality, with 86% of the residues in the most favored regions and 14% in allowed regions of the Ramachandran map and model was refined to an R-factor of 20.7% (Rfree of 27.3%). CaAK monomer belongs to the class I type AKs which consists of one catalytic domain and two ACT domains ( Fig. 1a) [25]. The superposition of complete chain of A on the other 11 chains yields root-mean-square deviation (r.m.s.d) ICG-001 mw between 0.68 Å and 1.36 Å, indicating that all 12 chains in the asymmetric unit of the CaAK crystal are similar. The superposition of CaAK dimer AB on the other dimers CD, EF, GH, IJ and KL in the asymmetric unit yield r.m.s.d’s of 1.1 Å, 1.86 Å, 1.5 Å, 1.63 Å and 1.67 Å, respectively. The active biological KU-57788 chemical structure unit of aspartate kinases is homodimeric which is formed between identical ACT domains from two neighboring subunits ( Fig. 1b). ACT1 domains

from chain A and B are arranged side-by-side with the creation of two equivalent effector binding sites at the interface. Similarly, ACT2 of one monomer interacts with the ACT2 of the other monomer. The homodimers are further associates into CaAK tetramer ( Casein kinase 1 Fig. 1c). There were three tetramers of CaAK observed in the asymmetric unit. A simultaneous least-squares superposition of the tetramer ABCD on to EFGH and IJKL tetramers results in alignment with r.m.s.d’s of 2.4 and 2.9 Å, respectively. The three tetramers of CaAK comprise six homodimers which exhibits essentially identical overall dimeric

architecture. The overall fold is similar to the other class I AKs although these shares very low sequence identity. Specifically, Fig. 2 compares E. coli aspartate kinase III (EcAkIII-PDB 2J0X and 2J0W with r.m.s.d 2.2 Å and 3.8 Å, respectively; 25.9% sequence identity) [26], A. thaliana aspartate kinase (AtAK-PDB 2CDQ; rmsd 3.0 Å; 26% sequence identity) [28], and M. jannaschii aspartate kinase (MjAK-PDB 3C1N, 3C20 and 3C1M with rmsd 2.6 Å, 3.0 Å and 4.3 Å, respectively; 27.9% sequence identity) [27]. The N-terminal domain of CaAK is considered to be the catalytic domain (AKα-residues 1–282) and belongs to the amino-acid kinase family [31] with a conserved eight-stranded β-sheet sandwiched between two layers of α-helices. The catalytic domain is further divided into the N-terminal lobe (residues 1–200 shown in purple) and the C-terminal lobe (residues 201–282 shown in brown color) [26], [27] and [28].

In coastal areas, inorganic suspended matter becomes increasingly

In coastal areas, inorganic suspended matter becomes increasingly RG7204 important with proximity to the inner part of the bay. The three optical components in this model may act as an ecosystem synthesis of a given coastal water body: CDOM mostly relates to terrestrial inputs of freshwater, suspended particulate inorganic matter (SPIM) to land drainage and to wind-stirring in shallow waters, and phytoplankton to the production in the pelagic ecosystem, influenced by anthropogenic nutrients from the local UWWTP. One of the main conclusions from this model in relation to management is that inorganic suspended matter can be here used as an indicator for determining the

extent of coastal waters. The extension of the coastal waters would in this case be in the range of 15–20 km off the coast, where inorganic suspended matter load tends towards zero (tending below 0.05 g m−3) (Fig. 3). This is about 10 times as much as the 1 nautical mile defined by the WFD [10]. The extent of the coastal zone is an issue of great relevance to Baltic Sea management as the WFD is applied to coastal waters, whereas the management of the open Baltic Sea is under the responsibility of HELCOM. Another conclusion of this model in relation to coastal management is that changes in water clarity in Baltic Sea coastal waters are not only an indication

of changes buy KU-60019 in phytoplankton biomass, but may also be related to changes in CDOM or SPM concentrations [28]. A reduction of land- or human-derived nutrients, Thiamine-diphosphate kinase e.g. from the local UWWTP, does therefore not necessarily lead to an improved Secchi depth in the coastal zone, especially in those areas with high fluvial input. As high concentrations of CDOM and SPM also increase the attenuation of light, they may also have

an effect on light limitation of phytoplankton growth. Consequently, a pilot study of the bio-optical effects on the water quality in Himmerfjärden started in 2010, to monitor CDOM and SPM along with the regular monitoring programs. This initiative was supported by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency with the aim of developing and evaluating the monitoring elements within WFD. As mentioned before, Secchi depth has been used as the main indicator for eutrophication in the BSAP [12]. Secchi depth is closely related to the diffuse attenuation coefficient, Kd(490), which can be estimated from space [29] and [30]. In the open Baltic Sea Kd(490) can be measured reliably from space using SeaWiFS and MODIS data [31]. Given empirical and theoretical relationships between Kd(490) and Secchi depth, it is therefore also possible to derive Secchi depth images from remotely sensed Kd(490) data or to derive both parameters directly from spectral water-leaving radiance derived from satellite data [2] and [28] ( Fig. 4).